Monday, March 6, 2017

~115,000 year old 1,800cc "mongoloid" skull from China fits perfectly in Peter Klevius theory on human evolution


~105,000- to 125,000-year-old archaic human crania from Xuchang, China shows incipient mongoloid and Neanderthal traits - may be Denisovans. 



Neanderthal male ~1600cc  (~50,000bp), Xuchang 1 male 1800cc (~115,000bp)  Jinniushan female ~1400cc (260,000bp).                   

Zhan-Yang Li et al.: Two early Late Pleistocene crania from Lingjing, Xuchang, China, exhibit a morphological mosaic with differences from and similarities to their western contemporaries. They share pan–Old World trends in encephalization and in supraorbital, neurocranial vault, and nuchal gracilization. They reflect eastern Eurasian ancestry in having low, sagittally flat, and inferiorly broad neurocrania. They share occipital (suprainiac and nuchal torus) and temporal labyrinthine (semicircular canal) morphology with the Neandertals. This morphological combination reflects Pleistocene human evolutionary patterns in general biology, as well as both regional continuity and interregional population dynamics.

The ~260,000bp incipient "mongoloid" Jinniushan from northern China - a corner stone in Peter Klevius' published theory on human evolution since 1992.

Klevius question in his 1992 book was twofold:

1 How come that there was a "mongoloid" big brained skull in northern China  two ice age cycles before present, yet nothing really happened before ~50,000bp?

2  How come that the oldest modern Africans are "mongoloids" - but much younger in Africa than the China fossils?

Add to this the remarkable Liujiang from China (see below).


Both fossils show clear cold adaptation (mongoloid) traits. However, Jinniushan (right) is older and has a bigger cranial capacity although it's female.

In Demand for Resources (1992:28 ISBN 9173288411) in a chapter about human evolution, Peter Klevius used only one example, the remarkable Jinniushan skeleton/cranium:

In northern China near North Korean border an almost complete skeleton of a young man who died 280,000 years ago. The skeleton was remarkable because its big cranial volume (1,400cc) was not expected in Homo erectus territory at this early time and even if classified as Homo sapiens it was still big. The anatomically completely modern human brain volume is 1,400 cc and appeared between 50-100,000 years ago. One may therefore conclude that big brain volume by far predated more sophisticated human behavior (Klevius 1992:28).

Today, when many believe the skeleton is female, the brain size becomes even more remarkable.

However, today, after the revelation of Homo floresiensis, there's a clear candidate to answering Klevius questions above: tropical island dwarfed brain, and its genetic spread up to the previously dumb but big skulled (to compensate for some of their dumbness) northerners. When these genes met the result was an explosion of intelligence in some of the northerners.

Klevius wrote:

Thursday, March 15, 2012 (with some random updates)

The Red Deer Cave people add more evidence for Klevius’ ape/homo hybridization theory


The irrefutable art track in Northern Eurasia (see map below) has no contemporary equivalent in other parts of the world. Based on what we know now it had no fore bearers whatsoever in any period of time. Moreover, it seems that there was even a decline before "civilizations" started tens of thousands of years later! Yet Klevius seems to be the only one addressing this most interesting (besides genetics) fact! According to Klevius (and no one else so far) the new and more efficient brain evolved in a jungle environment (SE Asia?) and spread up until meeting with big headed Neanderthals hence creating the modern human who later spread and dissolved with archaic homos. In this process Homo erectus was most probably involved as well.

Updated info about the origin of Klevius' theory

Keep in mind that mainland SE Asia possibly harbored physically truly modern humans already before the time range (12,000/18,000 ybp - 98,000 ybp) of the Homo floresiensis remains in the Flores cave.



Liujiang, SE China (est. 100,000-140,000ybp)


If this Liujiang skull had been found in Africa or Mideast Wikipedia and other media would be overfilled. But this is all you get now (summer 2015 update) from Wikipedia about this extremely important skull:



The Liujiang skull probably came from sediment dating to 111 000 to 139 000 which would mean it's older than the oldest Homo floresiensis remains on Flores. Nothing even remotely close to this modern skull has ever been found in Africa, Mideast or Europe this early. In other words, we have the extremely archaic looking Red Deer Cave people 100,000 years after this extremely modern looking Liujiang population at approximately the same region. Even the least probable estimate of 70,000 bp would make Liujiang more modern looking than anything else.

Also compare Lake Mungo remains in Australia with an mtDNA that differs completely from ours (incl. Australian Aborigines). Sadly the remains have been kept out of further research because of stupid* "Aboriginal"(?!) greed (for the purpose of making certain people more "special" than others for no good reason at all (also compare the ridiculous Kennewick man controversy). Does it need to be said that the Mungo remains are as far from Australian Aborigines in appearance as you can imagine. However, according to Alan Thorne, 'Mungo could not have come from Africa as, just like Aboriginal Australians don't look like anybody from Africa, Mungo Man's skeleton doesn't look like anybody from Africa either. LM3 skeleton was of a gracile individual, estimated stature of 196 cm, which all sharply contrast with the morphology of modern indigenous Australians. Compared to the older Liujiang skull Mungo man had a much smaller brain.

* There's no way anyone can state who was "first" in Australia - and even if there was, then there's still no way of  making any meaningful connection to now living people.



Updated map


Most "mysteries" in genetics disappear by abandoning OOA and changing direction of HSS evolution. Only South East Asia offered a combination of tropical island/mainland fluctuations needed to put pressure on size reduction paired with evolutionary isolation in an environment where only those survived who managed to shrink their heads while keeping the same intelligence as their mainland kins with some double the sized brain. Homo floresiensis is evidence that such has happened there.


Denisovan is an extinct species of human in the genus Homo. In March 2010, scientists announced the discovery of a finger bone fragment of a juvenile female who lived about 41,000 years ago, found in the remote Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in Siberia, a cave which has also been inhabited by Neanderthals and modern humans. Two teeth and a toe bone belonging to different members of the same population have since been reported.

Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Denisovan finger bone showed it to be genetically distinct from the mtDNAs of Neanderthals and modern humans. Subsequent study of the nuclear genome from this specimen suggests that this group shares a common origin with Neanderthals, that they ranged from Siberia to Southeast Asia, and that they lived among and interbred with the ancestors of some present-day modern humans, with about 3% to 5% of the DNA of Melanesians and Aboriginal Australians deriving from Denisovans. DNA discovered in Spain suggests that Denisovans at some point resided in Western Europe, where Neanderthals were thought to be the only inhabitants. A comparison with the genome of a Neanderthal from the same cave revealed significant local interbreeding, with local Neanderthal DNA representing 17% of the Denisovan genome, while evidence was also detected of interbreeding with an as yet unidentified ancient human lineage. Similar analysis of a toe bone discovered in 2011 is underway, while analysis of DNA from two teeth found in layers different from the finger bone revealed an unexpected degree of mtDNA divergence among Denisovans. In 2013, mitochondrial DNA from a 400,000-year-old hominin femur bone from Spain, which had been seen as either Neanderthal or Homo heidelbergensis, was found to be closer to Denisovan mtDNA than to Neanderthal mtDNA.

Little is known of the precise anatomical features of the Denisovans, since the only physical remains discovered thus far are the finger bone, two teeth from which genetic material has been gathered and a toe bone. The single finger bone is unusually broad and robust, well outside the variation seen in modern people. Surprisingly, it belonged to a female, indicating that the Denisovans were extremely robust, perhaps similar in build to the Neanderthals. The tooth that has been characterized shares no derived morphological features with Neanderthal or modern humans. An initial morphological characterization of the toe bone led to the suggestion that it may have belonged to a Neanderthal-Denisovan hybrid individual, although a critic suggested that the morphology was inconclusive. This toe bone's DNA was analyzed by Pääbo. After looking at the full genome, Pääbo and others confirmed that humans produced hybrids with Denisovans.

Some older finds may or may not belong to the Denisovan line. These includes the skulls from Dali and Maba, and a number of more fragmentary remains from Asia. Asia is not well mapped with regard to human evolution, and the above finds may represent a group of "Asian Neanderthals".

Jinniushan and Floresiensis - the keys to Denisovan and the truly modern humans

Jinniushan had a bigger brain than anything in contemporary Africa




In Demand for Resources (1992:28 ISBN 9173288411) in a chapter about human evolution, Peter Klevius used only one example, the remarkable Jinniushan skeleton/cranium:

In northern China near North Korean border an almost complete skeleton of a young man who died 280,000 years ago. The skeleton was remarkable because its big cranial volume (1,400cc) was not expected in Homo erectus territory at this early time and even if classified as Homo sapiens it was still big. The anatomically completely modern human brain volume is 1,400 cc and appeared between 50-100,000 years ago. One may therefore conclude that big brain volume by far predated more sophisticated human behavior (Klevius 1992:28).

Today, when many believe the skeleton is female, the brain size becomes even more remarkable.

Since 1991 when Klevius wrote his book much new information has been produced. However, it seems that the Jinniushan archaic Homo sapiens still constitutes the most spectacular anomaly (together with Homo floresiensis) in anthropology. So why did Klevius pick Jinniushan instead of one of the more fashionable human remains? After all, Klevius was a big fan of Rchard Leakey (he even interviewed him in a lengthy program for the Finnish YLE broadcasting company) and there was a lot of exciting bones appearing from the Rift Valley.

In the 1980s Klevius paid special attention to Australian aborigines and African "bushmen" and noted that the latter were mongoloid in appearance (even more so considering that todays Khoe-San/Khoisan are heavily mixed with Bantu speakers). But mongoloid features are due to cold adaptation in the north and therefore the "bushmen" had to be related to Eurasia. Klevius soon realized that the Khoisan speakers had moved to the southern Africa quite recently as a consequence of the so called Bantu expansion. More studies indicated that the "bushmen" had previously populated most of east Africa up to the Red Sea and beyond.

So the next step for Klevius was to search for early big skulled human remains in the mongoloid northern part of Eurasia. And that search really paid off.

This happened more than 20 years before the discovery of the Denisova bracelet and the human relative Denisovan in Altai. 

Klevius book Demand for Resources (1992) in which these thoughts about mongoloid traits were published also predates Floresiensis with more than a decade.







.

Saturday, February 25, 2017

Fake science from Stanford - and Peter Klevius warning (and cure) about it from 1992


If your research/analysis isn't popular it will be dismissed/neglected - no matter how truthfully it's made. Same thing if your research/analysis doesn't comply with those in power* (PC media - incl. so called "scientific" journals).


* Do understand that science has two legs, a particular and a general. The particular consists of tiny bits of research that then has to be translated into the whole. And whereas the former only demands technical knowledge of the research process, the latter demands both intelligence and as little bias as possible. Bias in the former would just mean it's no real science, whereas bias in the latter is inevitable, yet should be kept by all means to a minimum. Unfortunately many researchers are unable to distinguish between the particular and the general. However, Peter Klevius thinks he possesses more than average research intelligence. Why? 1) He had super intelligent parents, 2) he has been told by two of Finland's top professors (from two completely different disciplines - philosophy and neuroscience) that he has the perfect talent for precisely this altering between the particular and the general, 3) he has no financial ties with what he researches (which fact, in fact, is used belttle him), 4) he calls himself a physical as well as cultural "bastard" meaning that he is free from most types of "community bias", 5) he leads a happy life and has his moral stance towards others completely connected to the (negative) Human Rights declaration of 1948. 

So true science and fake "science" are irreconcilable. However, this isn't immediately obvious because, like e.g. HIV, the scientific process that was aimed at eliminating bias, itself became the best hiding place for cultural, political, religious, financial etc. bias.
Drawing by Peter Klevius from a lecture about the chapter Science and References in Demand for Resources (Klevius, 1992:40-44, ISBN 9173288411).

Fake science rooted in Stanford - and applauded by BBC (which is heavily connected to islamofascism via the islamofascist Saudi dictator family's UK connections).



So true science and fake "science" are irreconcilable. However, this isn't immediately obvious because, like e.g. HIV, the scientific process that was aimed at eliminating bias, itself became the best hiding place for cultural, political, religious, financial etc. bias.

Four academic examples from Klevius own experience:


1 A thesis in social anthropology was criticized for not being written "in the fashion we do it here", although the thesis was simultaneously highly praised for "the author's intelligent writing" and "superb use of citations" (Klevius himself warns for "citation cartels" in his 1992 book Demand for Resources).

2  An other thesis in sociology in the 1990s was criticized for showing that perpetrators of child sexual abuse, as reported in the most prominent scientific literature, was least likely to be a biological parent, and most likely to occur outside the home. This study was in response to the Swedish state radio which had a long daily "incest" insert in their main news hour over a period of 18 days, where sex abuse numbers by stepfathers, step siblings, peers etc. were presented in a way that made the listeners believe it was parental incest. The series seems to have been a direct support for more funds to the "social state"* (aka the "welfare state"). An opponent asked Klevius: "Why do you do this?" Klevius answer, that he wanted to warn for the serious consequences for the child in case of false accusations - and the fact that other more prevalent abuse went unnoticed, was met with total silence. Moreover, that the so far biggest study on the welfare of children taken into care in the Swedish system didn't stand up to even the lowest expectations, was also met with something resembling disgust. And finally, that the world's most extensive study on child sex abuse in Finland didn't at all correspond with the picture given by media and social state bureaucrats and politicians, seemed to have no value whatsoever compared to the state radio propaganda.

*To understadn the "social state" do read Angels of Antichrist and Pathological Symbiosis.

3  In Klevius thesis "Pathological Symbiosis" it was shown that social state bureaucrats directly influenced and managed to implement a criterion for abducting children from their parents based on a psychological non sense term (which history Klevius thoroughly traced back to Freud's time). When it became the law it wasn't any longer taken seriously even by researchers in psychology but became popular among welfare officials. And to hide this insidious criterion from ordinary people it was hidden in the preparatory works which people rarely read. And the text in the law paragraph used the old formulation "or some other condition in the home", but now also applying to the new hidden criterion "pathological symbiosis". Moreover, in psychologists' statements used in court hearings there was no mentioning about "pathological symbiosis" but rather its "legal synonyms" such as, for example, "the mother doesn't understand the needs of her child" etc.. Klevius would never have seen it was it not for him working as a solicitor in child custody cases and reading through several hundred cases which looked suspicious when it came to the reason for taking a child into the care of the social state.

4 A thesis about how to analyze restraints on girls'/women's freedom imposed by sex segregation and poorly understood/analyzed connection to heterosexual attraction, was criticized by a female professor with the following words: "Why don't you want to let women lead their lives as they wish?" Quite a surprising remark considering that Klevius thesis used the 1948 Human Rights declaration and its emphasis on 'sex' not being used as an excuse for restricting any Human Rights. The simple minded professor obviously thought it somehow threatening to let women free from sex segregation restrains.


BBC's guest from the Medical Research Council discussing fake research: Irreproducibility could give rise to new results.


Peter Klevius: Sorry, but that's not science - it's luck.


85% irreproducibility, i.e. replication failed.

Out of 5 cancer studies only 2 could be reproduced.

Causes mentioned:

publication crisis

pressure from funders

priority based on what the researcher have published before - not the scientific quality of the actual work at stake.

incompetency

too small sample size

studying the wrong thing (compare Klevius drawing above)

"curated" literature (compare what Klevius wrote 1992 - especially about citation cartels and lists.

selective reporting

statistics manipulated - usually by leaving out important data (i.e. not just simple tampering with data) or by sampling errors.

peer review - which may be equally polarized as politics, hence bundling/tying "peers" in a certain paradigm/discourse enclosure (see Klevius cure on Inside Klevius mind on Klevius' web museum - not touched upon for more than a decade).


Peter Klevius bias check on fake assessment of fake science - i.e. "pseudo-science quacks" from Stanford.


Here's an example of pseudo-science quacks (psychology) presented as science by John Ioannidis (Stanford) and commented by Peter Klevius (no surprise it's published in a "social state" paper - read Klevius' Angels of Antichrist or his thesis Pathological Symbiosis, to really understand this):

Yes, Klevius, who plays in the heavyweight class, apologizes for correcting a guy from a lower class. However, Klevius isn't interested in John Ioannidis' IQ disability but rather in his bias (witting or unwitting) and the framework he offers by defending "pseudo-science quacks" like psychology by calling it "science". Reminds Klevius of his own example in Demand for Resources (1992 ISBN 9173288411) where a phycisist and a psychologist studied the effects of an egg falling on the head of a person. Whereas the physicist's findings were replicable (the main pattern of the cracks in the shell and due flow of soft material), the psychologist's findings (reaction of the test person) were not. And even if the test person (compare test bench) was altered by being informed in advance, that would only either have made the study meaningless, or being used to "verify" the obvious without getting even close to a result deserving the term science. Not to mention the problem with citations, falsifiability etc.. Wittgenstein (the mentor of his successor at Cambridge, G H von Wright, who mentored Klevius) would probably not have approved of it.

John Ioannidis: Science is the best thing that has happened to humankind because its results can be questioned, retested, and demonstrated to be wrong. Science is not about proving at all cost some preconceived dogma.

Peter Klevius: Well, that's what child psychology has been doing since Freud. As is the sex segregation dogma that Klevius was the first to puncture (see e.g. Pathological Symbiosis, and other works by Klevius revealing the core problem of social state "science" and sex segregation). Children have no say of their own, and are therefore the perfect market place for "pseudo-science quacks". And only a child can today be legally forced into "gender dogmas" (compare DSM). Moreover, the "social state" (see e.g. Angels of Antichrist, and Pathological Symbiosis) is the perfect field for growing "quacks" because it not only pushes forward its own agenda and due legislation, but it also possesses authority - i.e. the exact opposite to the private sector (yet it of course transgresses into the private sector whenever it suits it). The "social state" exists in a protective bubble labeled "welfare" (for whom? - read Angels of Antichrist).

John Ioannidis: Despite this clear superiority of the scientific method, we researchers (sic) are still fallible humans. 270 investigators working for five years published in Science the results of their efforts to replicate 100 important results that had been previously published in three top psychology journals. The replicators worked closely with the original authors to make the repeat experiments close replicas of the originals. The results were bleak: 64% of the experiments could not be replicated.

Peter Klevius: "Working close with the original authors" was their first mistake, and probably gave a too positive result (also compare Tienari et al adoptive study and their own "instrument" for assessing their own evaluation of their own study, referred to in Klevius' Angels of Antichrist, 1996).

John Ioannidis: We often feel uneasy about having our results probed for possible debunking. We don’t always exactly celebrate when we are proven wrong. For example, retracting published papers can take many years and many editors, lawyers, and whistleblowers – and most debunked published papers are never retracted. Moreover, with fierce competition for limited research funds and with millions of researchers struggling to make a living (publish, get grants, get promoted), we are under immense pressure to make “significant”, “innovative” discoveries. Many scientific fields are thus being flooded with claimed discoveries that nobody ever retests. Retesting (called replication) is discouraged. In most fields, no funding is given for what is pooh-poohed as me-too efforts. We are forced to hasten from one “significant” paper to the next without ever reassessing our previously claimed successes.

Peter Klevius: "We"?! Try to hide behind the back of reliable quantitative science? Psychology is a so called "qualitative science" which started as a quantitative measuring of factual animal behavior, but sadly ended up as a "qualitative" guesswork about human future behavior - i.e. a mission completely impossible keeping in mind the endless and never reachable amount of existing (but not accessible) "experience data" and their possible reactions to a myriad of possible future settings for the child/adult. In other words this is just folk psychology wrapped in money.

John Ioannidis: Multiple lines of evidence suggest this is a recipe for disaster, leading to a scientific literature littered with long chains of irreproducible results. Irreproducibility is rarely an issue of fraud. Simply having millions of hardworking scientists searching fervently and creatively in billions of analyses for something statistically significant can lead to very high rates of false-positives (red-herring claims about things that don’t exist) or inflated results.

Peter Klevius: Let me just quote myself (in a hasty translation from Swedish) from my book Demand for Resources (1992:43): Especially within the realm of social science these tendencies are reaching worrying dimensions, and one can already see how citations are streamlined for political purpose in a way where legislation  is "prepared" via tailored "research" as a part in society's - to borrow Habermas - "increased manipulation of motives/social control". However, the system itself becomes a new paradigm and discourse where this bias becomes so overwhelming that it can only be questioned outside itself (for how to do this, see Inside Klevius Mind - http://klevius.info/IQdepth.html?1076884215269 - on Klevius web museum, which is left untouched since more than a decade ago). In this respect it resembles sex segregation, where true* feminism (i.e. segregational) hinders scrutiny of women's own role in it.

* In popular usage 'feminism' is often seen as women's right to transgress over "gender lines" i.e. the very opposite to sex segregation in feminist theory/ies (read some of Klevius many 'sex tutorials'.

John Ioannidis: This is more likely to happen in fields that chase subtle, complex phenomena, in those that have more noise in measurement, and where there is more room for subjective choices to be introduced in designing and running experiments and crunching the data. Ten years ago I tried to model these factors. These models predicted that in most scientific fields and settings the majority of published research, findings may be false. They also anticipated that the false rates could vary greatly (from almost 0% to almost 100%), depending on the features of a scientific discipline and how scientists run their work.

Peter Klevius: Scientific bias feeds on noise! Without it politicized "science" wouldn't be possible. When Klevius in a TV debate critiziced the quality of social state interference in children's lives and that these consequences weren't properly dealt with, he was accused for not being the criminologist his academic credentials said he was. Obviously, being a criminologist meant that one should not be critical of the social state (which feeds most criminologists).

John Ioannidis: Probably the failure rate in the Science data would have been higher for work published in journals of lesser quality. There are tens of thousands of journals in the scientific-publishing market, and most will publish almost anything submitted to them. The failure rate may also be higher for studies that are so complex that none of the collaborating replicators offered to attempt a replication. This group accounted for one-third of the studies published in the three top journals. So the replication failure rate for psychology at large may be 80% or more overall.

Peter Klevius: By "lesser quality" Ioannidis apparently means journals publishing studies/analysis which aren't PC and/or streamlined for psychology and the social state.

John Ioannidis: This performance is even worse than I would have predicted. In 2012 my anticipation of a 53% replication failure rate for psychology at large was published. Compared with other empirical studies, the failure rate of psychology seems to be in the same ballpark as replication failure rates in observational epidemiology, cancer drug targets and preclinical research, and animal experiments.

Peter Klevius: There's no replicability in psychology. What he rants about is simply statistics. "In fields that chase subtle, complex phenomena, in those that have more noise in measurement, and where there is more room for subjective choices to be introduced in designing and running experiments and crunching the data" truly scientific results cab never be produced. And if the results are "replicable" it's just at the same level as folk psychology - or possibly even less if there's "scientific" bias involved.

John Ioannidis: However, I think it is important to focus on the positive side. The Science paper shows that large-scale replication efforts of high quality are doable even in fields like psychology where there was no strong replication culture until recently. Hopefully this successful, highly informative paradigm will help improve research practices in this field. Many other scientific fields without strong replication cultures may also be prompted now to embrace replications and reproducible research practices. Thus these seemingly disappointing results offer a great opportunity to strengthen scientific investigation. I look forward to celebrate one day when my claim that most published research findings are false is thoroughly refutedrr across most, if not all, scientific fields.

Peter Klevius: There can never exist a fair "replication culture" in psychology (incl. so called psychodynamic "theory") because it suffers from the same disease as psychoanalysis, feminist theory etc., i.e. more or less openly admitting not being scientific in the first place, yet trying to convince us of being above folk level.

Monday, January 2, 2017

The laughable pseudo-science of the so called "Birmingham Koran" hoax.

Terribly sorry to have this on a science blog but my only defense is that it's sorted under the folder 'bias in science and media'.

Peter Klevius is utterly embarrassed of again having to pick up this ultimate religious nonsense  "science" scum, the notorious "Birmingham Koran" leafs.

It's like islam itself a product of PC and support of the Saudi dictator family's position as the "guardian" of "great religion". And scratch a little deeper and you'll probably find channels to Jeddah and Riyadh. Klevius won't waste his time for it.


"Prophet" Mohammad is the corner stone of islam - yet he is completely missing from any official muslim/islamic records until some half a century after his alleged death*. And the "researchers" behind the "Birmingham Koran" hoax must have known that - or...?!


* Isn't it quite peculiar that a man with so many wives didn't manage to father a single male successor? Even Klevius has managed to make an even distribution of the sexes with just a couple of wives. The son-less "prophet" is just an other outcome of the later introduction of Muhammad, i.e. to patch the lack of a male succession line of an invented "messenger". And because the "son-in-law" Ali represented one of the internally fighting muslim factions we got the now so visible Sunni-Shia split.



Peter Klevius (2014): "Birmingham Koran" has nothing to do with islam because Mohammad wasn't even introduced into islam at that time as yet. If you don't believe Klevius, ask whoever else serious historian! Moreover, whatever we will call the "book" from which the fragment comes, it must have been aJewish/Christian text of sort (is that why so many muslims seems to have grave issues with Jews?). "Prophet" Mohammad was a much later insertion into the muslim narrative.


Robert G. Hoyland: "Before Abd al-Malik (caliph 685-705) Muhammad (allegedly dead 632 but see Pourshariati) is never mentioned on any official document whatsoever..."


Peter Klevius many years ago:  There was no Muhammad nor Koran during "Muhammad's time"! 

This is self evident even without specific historical evidence because the Koran itself, as well as its followers behavior throughout islam's history and today, give us the true formula anyway.

However, for those interested, Klevius has compiled a short early islam history for the ignorant based on historical evidence. For Klevius is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

It won't hurt anyone, right? Especially not the "believers" because for them facts don't matter.

Iraq was attacked already in "Muhammad's time". The "wars against apostates" (ridda) were just pillaging and/or forceful heavy taxation combined with humiliation (i.e. dhimmi racism).

Futūḥ (ridda) were the early Arab-muslim "conquests" (i.e. more or less synonymous with what Islamic State tries to do today) which facilitated the violent spread of islam. The so called ridda wars have in muslim mythology been described as wars against apostates when they in fact were wars against infidels (i.e. "disbelievers") following these simple (but evil) instructions of Abu Bakr:

Seek the tribes which are your objectives. Call the Azaan (call for submission). If the tribe answers with the Azaan, do not attack. After the Azaan, ask the tribe to confirm its submission, including the payment of zakat. If confirmed, do not attack. Those who submit will not be attacked. Those who do not answer to the Azaan, or after the Azaan do not confirm full submission, will be dealt with by the sword. All apostates who have killed muslims will be killed.

The ridda wars in Iraq occured during the alleged Muhammad's lifetime, which fact is evident because the main sources connect them to historically well known persons and their activities outside the islamic realm. A fact that is quite hidden for ordinary people under all the muslim mythology noise on the web and elsewhere.


Parvaneh Pourshariati has convincingly established that the muslim murder/looting/raping campaign of Mesopotamia (today Iraq) "took place, not, as has been conventionally believed, in the years 632–634, after the accession of the last Sasanian king Yazdgerd III (632–651) to power, but in the period from 628 to 632." An important consequence of this change in timeline means that the muslim jihad crusades started precisely when the Sasanians and Parthians were engaged in internecine warfare over who was to succeed the Sasanid throne.


Unlike other "religious" myths and legends, the muslim navel string was never cut off, leaving the rotting placenta contaminating the future via a mummificated canal from the dark ages to date.

2  The historical reality was Jewish/Christian texts (Jesus was a Jew) used in a Syriac-Arabic linguistic environment where Arabic took its first stumbling steps in the written world that the non-Semitic Sumerians had entered some 4,000 years earlier.

3 There was no historical Muhammad. Before Abd al-Malik (caliph 685-705) Muhammad (allegedly dead 632 but see Pourshariati who beyond doubt shows the historical impossibility of such a death date) is never mentioned on any official document whatsoever. The simple truth is that a mythological Judeo-Christian Messiah figure was applied to or used by one or several leaders, and later, under  Malik, turned into a "muslim Messiah".

Islam is rooted in an eastern Jewish-Christian schism. Jews and Jews believing in (a monophysitism inspired Christianity) MHMD (anointed/Messiah) didn't only offer the wealthy background against which barbaric (according to islam's foremost historian Ibn Khaldun) Bedouin Arabs were enslaved and/or submitted/enrolled, but also constituted the missing fifth columnist historical link to the "unexplained" success of early islamic terror "conquest".

 4 The only logical/historical explanation to islam's expansion out of the Arabian desert is parasitism. Ironically, that's also the explanation the Koran gives - albeit strongly denied by PC people.

Conclusion: There was no Muhammad nor a Koran at the alleged time of the so called Birmingham Koran. So the only way to desperately try to make sense of what doesn't make sense, is to rely on unhistorical muslim mythology.

So, first you had a severe pillage inflammation in the narrow slave tracts through the desert. And the longer they got the bigger the gang which needed even more booty and women. Some three quarter of a century after the initial attacks (the slaughtering of the Jews in Medina etc.) the first Koran was edited together.


 What happened in Medina was well in accordance with evil 'get killed or submit' formula of islam -. with no "prophet messenger" but possibly even several Mohammads, i.e. "Messianic" copycats.
More than hundred years after the alleged death of Muhammad the first sharia emerged.

So all of this has certainly nothing to do with that Koran "science" nonsense in Birmingham, which babbles about a non existing Koran written down at a time of a non-existing "prophet"!

Christoph Luxenberg's reading of the Koran


According to Christoph Luxenberg, the Koran was not written in Arabic but in a mixed Arabic-Syriac language, the traders' language of Mecca and it was based on Christian liturgical texts. When the final text of the Koran was codified, those working on it did not understand the original sense and meaning of this hybrid trading language any more, and they forcefully and randomly turned it into classical Arabic. This gave rise to a lot of misinterpretations. Something like this can only have happened if there was a gap in the oral transmission of the Koranic text.

Luxenberg remarks that the Koran contains much ambiguous and even inexplicable language. He asserts that even muslim scholars find some passages difficult to parse and have written reams of Quranic commentary attempting to explain these passages. However, the assumption behind their endeavours has always been, according to him, that any difficult passage is true, meaningful, and pure Arabic, and that it can be deciphered with the tools of traditional muslim scholarship. Luxenberg accuses Western academic scholars of the Koran of taking a timid and imitative approach, relying too heavily on the biased work of muslim scholars.

According to Luxenberg, the Koran was not originally written exclusively in Arabic but in a mixture with Syriac, the dominant spoken and written language in the Arabian peninsula through the 8th century.

“What is meant by Syro-Aramaic (actually Syriac) is the branch of Aramaic in the Near East originally spoken in Edessa and the surrounding area in Northwest Mesopotamia and predominant as a written language from Christianization to the origin of the Koran. For more than a millennium Aramaic was the lingua franca in the entire Middle Eastern region before being gradually displaced by Arabic beginning in the 7th century.”

Luxenberg argues that scholars must start afresh, ignore the old islamic commentaries, and use only the latest in linguistic and historical methods. Hence, if a particular Koranic word or phrase seems meaningless in Arabic, or can be given meaning only by tortured conjectures, it makes sense – he argues – to look to the Aramaic and Syriac languages as well as Arabic.

Luxenberg also argues that the Koran is based on earlier texts, namely Syriac lectionaries used in the Syriac Christian churches of Syria, and that it was the work of several generations who adapted these texts into the Koran we know today.

Klevius advise: You might be better off without your belief in ghosts. However, you will certainly be better off with a conscience resting on Universal Human Rights freedom (for you and others) than with limiting and imposing sharia that is also uncontrollable because different users can interpret it differently due to its   that violates Human Rights of others and opens up for parasitism, racism and sexism.

Measured by basic Human Rights standard islam is extremely uncivilized. And this is the only logical in islam. Born out of evil always evil. And when you disinfect islam from its evil it's no longer islam.


Some early sources:


An eighth-century manuscript of a seventh-century text in Syriac, attributed to Thomas Presbyter contains the earliest known mention in a non-muslim text of a 'Muhammad'.

    'In the year 945 [=634], indiction 7, Friday 4 February at the ninth hour, there was a battle between the Romans and the Arabs of Muhammad in Palestine twelve miles east of Gaza. The Romans fled, leaving behind the patrician bryrdn(?), whom the Arabs killed. Some four thousand poor villagers of Palestine were killed there, Christians, Jews and Samaritans. The Arabs (i.e. muslims) ravaged the whole region.'

The Arabic script as we know it today was unknown in Muhammad’s time

The construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem in 691–92 represents the earliest known dated passages later found in the Koran. In these inscriptions, some letters are provided with diacritical points.

There can be little doubt that the first contacts between nascent islam and the Christian world were one-sidedly violent and bloody and that they brought much suffering on the populations of the Christian Countries that the muslims attacked.

These accounts show that offensive sword-jihad was the modus vivendi of the early muslims and that sack, pillage, the taking of (sex-)slaves and the ravaging of the land were commonplace.

The sources also show that the muslim sense of a “god-given” entitlement to Judea-Samaria, and thus modern Israel, goes back to the foundations of islam itself.

There is evidence of the establishment of Dhimmitude and payment of Jizya and other taxes that destroyed the wealth of the non-muslims.

The explanations for much of this can be found within the Koran, Biographic and Hadith literature.

Some muslims of today are inclined to say that the Hadith and Biographies are “inaccurate” or that they “reflect the views of the muslims of the times [a century or more after Muhammad] rather than the truth about islam”. What the above demonstrates is that the “views” expressed in the Ahadith and Biographies reach back to, if not the time of Muhammad himself, then to within a year or two of his death.

Given that the early records date to before the time of the textus receptus of the Koran and thus pre-date by centuries other muslim sources and further that they reflect the actions of the Sahaba, we can be quite certain that the attitudes in the later muslim sources which reflect these earlier sources are genuine in that they are accurately accounting the beliefs of the Sahaba.



PERF 558 is the oldest surviving Arabic papyrus, found in Heracleopolis in Egypt, and is also the oldest dated Arabic text during the islamic era.
It is a bilingual Arabic-Greek fragment, consisting of a tax receipt, or as it puts it 'Document concerning the delivery of sheep to the Magarites and other people who arrived, as a down-payment of the taxes of the first indiction. It's dated to the month of Jumādā which is the first in the year 22 after "Muhammad's" arrival to Medina, i.e. 643.

It includes:

    The first well-attested use of the disambiguating dots in the still developing Arabic alphabet;
    It begins with the Greek formula "ev onomati tou teou" (In the Name of God) after a Sign of the Cross
    It records the date both in the islamic calendar (Jumada I, year 22) and in the Alexandrian calendar (30 Pharmouthi, 1st indiction), corresponding with 25 April 643 in the Julian calendar.

    In Greek, it calls the Arabs "Magaritae", a term, believed to be related to the Arabic "muhajir" often used in the earliest non-islamic sources. It also calls them "Saracens".


Muslim mafia occupy Medina and eventually slaughter all Jews there

The numbers of the muslims in Medina grew thanks to the tolerance of the Jews and their error in giving the immigrants a safe haven. Jews did not foresee that the muslims to whom they gave asylum would turn against them and eventually slaughter them all.

After the incident of Badr when muslims ambushed a merchant caravan, and brought the booty, they got the upper hand in Medina. They were enriched by the stolen booty, and the popularity of becoming muslim grew. They were promised wealth and slave girls to those who took part in armed robberies, and paradise with houries and rivers of wine to those who got killed. For an ignorant fanatic and at the same time greedy Arab this was a proposition hard to resist.



Sunday, January 1, 2017

Who were the most evil ones, muslims or Vikings?


This is an old post from 2014 based on a post from 2006 'Origin of the Vikings'.

While Yazidi people (the original monotheists from which Jews, Christians and muslims took their "faiths") and other non-muslims (and wrong-muslims) are raped, terrorized, slaughtered or forced to "convert" to islam, Ahmed and Warsi are busy defending the muslim terror organization Hamas





Take a look at the two faces in the middle of this pic that Klevius has used for many years to enlighten the problem with islam. They are both old pals fighting for political islam and against Human Rights - not necessarily for the parties they repesent. Ahmed is a muslim who uses Labor party in his jihad while Warsi uses the Conservative party in hers. They are both rooted in Pakistan (Kashmir area) and they have both been deeply involved in scandals that would have put a non-muslim far away from any political post. More about Warsi furthest down on this posting.


A glossy popular history magazine now describes plundering Medieval muslims and Vikings in completely opposite ways. Why?!


Whereas 'the caravan robbing muslims' (and that's what the magazine actually writes) are called 'the followers of a new faith' and their plundering in Mideast, Africa, Asia and Europe is positively described as 'successful conquest' (while the European defense is called 'evil crusaders'), the Vikings are just negatively dismissed as evil  'Barbarians' from the north who 'devastated the whole of Europe'.


Klevius history lesson about the muslims and the Vikings


The "extremist" parts of the Koran are exactly the ones that count for true muslims and historical records. Without following precisely those extremist parts of the Koran there wouldn't have been any islam at all.

However, although the Viking phenomenon as such was a direct consequence of muslim evilness, the forceful Vikings themselves didn't come out of the blue but represented an amplification of a pre-existing historical pattern that goes back to the Goths. And so far only Klevius (who is a late Goth/Finland-Swede) seems to have found the quite obvious source code for this transition.

In short it goes as follows:



This advanced sword from Vendel in Uppland Sweden is dated to a time before the Vikings when Uppland was still generally Finnish or at least bi-lingual. It's just one of many examples clearly revealing an alternative understanding of how the "barbarian" "Pagans" from the north could topple the Christian Roman empire. Although the sword is from Vendel time, i.e. after the fall of the Romans, it has to be put in context with the Goths (see below).

Birka (east of Stockholm) was established in the middle of the 8th century and thus being one of the earliest urban settlements in Scandinavia. Birka became part of a Baltic/Bay of Finland link in the pre-existing river and portage routes through Ladoga (Aldeigja) and Novgorod (Holmsgard) to the Byzantine Empire and the parasitic islamofascist Abbasid slave Caliphate.


The Goths





Acknowledgement: It's extremely problematic and even embarrassing for Klevius as a Finland-Swede, and as a person who brags about self-criticism being his main scientific tool, to end up with his own ethnicity as having been a major global player in the past. However, there are some mitigating excuses. So for example, what made some Finland-Swedes to become Goths and Vikings etc. were not necessarily the most sought after human characteristics. Moreover, those Finland-Swedes who didn't participate became today's tiny and on the verge of extinction Finland-Swedish community, linguistically bullied by the Finns (language) as well as the Swedes (accent/dialects).


Btw, dear reader, why don't you dare to comment, ask questions etc? Isn't the topic interesting and challenging enough, or is it because you're a coward and don't want to be known as reading something critical of islam, the worst ideological crime ever against humanity?






The oldest runic inscription found is some 600 years before the Viking age - and it is Finnish (or more probably Finnish-Old Nordic, i.e. what Klevius terms Finland-Swedish)


This is the oldest runic (Futark) inscription found. It says HARJA which is exactly the same as 'harja', meaning comb or , brush or ridge, in modern Finnish. The word is etymologically very old and had this Finnish form when the comb was made, i.e. it cannot be confused with some non-Finnish interpretation. Moreover, the word is found in all sister languages. The possibly related Baltic (or other) words do not resemble it at all neither now nor back then. The comb was found in Denmark and is dated to 160 CE (same time as the birth of Fornjotr, king of Kvenland and Gotland). However, also keep in mind that the combs owner also spole old Nordic.

Warning! There are many confused "scientists" out there emotionally trying to dismiss the Nordic origin of the Goths. I even stumbled on one who thought that different spellings would mean different groups. Spellings etc don't matter here. Just like 'Vikings' the 'Goths' is more of a concept than a specific ethnicity - just like 'muslims', except for the fact that muslim evilness is still kept alive under the cover of 'religion'.

The name 'Goth' (in its many variants) reflects the fact that it's not only thoroughly anchored in a Finnish-Old Nordic geographical/linguistic area and context but also that Gothic is linguistically puzzling if you don't see it as an Uralic colored form of Old Nordic. Moreover, genetics is still in its cradle and hence an extremely fragile tool. Only very crude main chronologies can so far be established and even shallow dives result in progressive guesswork at best, no matter how fancy math and graphs are produced. Klevius will explain more on this exciting topic later. However, so far nothing in genetics seems to disprove Klevius' analysis.


To understand the confusing picture about Finnish-Old Nordic relations that seems to emerge, one has to consider the relation between Indoeuropean and Uralic/Finnish languages. Both groups stem from geographically overlapping areas. However, whereas the former was more sedentary and farming oriented the latter was older and more rooted in a hunter-gatherer context.

As we all know agricultural societies usually gained more wealth and population than nomads etc. So when they moved north the Germanic tribes tended to follow a path more favorable for farming (Germany, Denmark and southern Sweden). This is how the linguistic map evolved in northern Europe, divided between the Finnish/Uralic related and Germanic/Indoeuropean tribes.


The Langobards - an example of how a tiny amount of Finland-Swedes (Kvens) conquered Europa


The Lombards or Langobards (Germanic word meaning the 'long-bearded' or the 'long-boarded') Latin: Langobardī, Italian Longobardi), were a north Germanic (Gothic?) tribe traceable to Gotland (Scadanan) who ruled Italy from 568 to 774.

Paul the Deacon wrote in the Historia Langobardorum that the Lombards descended from a small tribe called the Winnili (or Vinnili or Finnili) who dwelt in southern Scandinavia (Scadanan, i.e. Gotland) before migrating to seek new lands. In the 1st century AD they formed part of the Suebi*, in northwestern Germany. By the end of the 5th century they had moved into the area roughly coinciding with modern Austria north of the Danube river, where they subdued the Heruls and later fought frequent wars with the Gepids. The Lombard king Audoin defeated the Gepid leader Thurisind in 551 or 552; his successor Alboin eventually destroyed the Gepids at the Battle of Asfeld in 567.

* From Proto-Germanic *swēbaz, either based on the Proto-Germanic root *swē- meaning "one's own" people, or on the third-person reflexive pronoun; or from an earlier Indo-European root *swe-. The etymological sources list the following ethnic names as also from the same root: Suiones, Semnones, Samnites, Sabelli, Sabini, indicating the possibility of a prior Indo-European ethnic name, "our own people". Ultimately the word may also be related to 'sib' with similar meaning.


Following this victory, Alboin decided to lead his people to Italy, which had become severely depopulated after the long Gothic War (535–554) between the Byzantine Empire and the Ostrogothic Kingdom there. The Lombards were joined by numerous Saxons, Heruls, Gepids, Bulgars, Thuringians, and Ostrogoths, and their invasion of Italy was almost unopposed. By late 569 they had conquered all the principal cities north of the Po River except Pavia, which fell in 572. At the same time, they occupied areas in central and southern Italy. They established a Lombard Kingdom in Italy, later named Regnum Italicum ("Kingdom of Italy"), which reached its zenith under the 8th-century ruler Liutprand. In 774, the Kingdom was conquered by the Frankish King Charlemagne and integrated into his Empire.



Vikings












From Altai to Gotland, Sami, God, Vikings, Shakespeare and Tolkien


Klevius etymology and history remarks relating to the Britain-Scandinavia connection: The ancient Persian (which is extremely young compared to Uralic) word for god 'khoda' connects to the even more ancient Finnish 'koti' and Finno-Ugric 'kota' (=home/house/seed vessel - see Klevius definition of religion and the Vagina gate), Saami 'goahti'. German Gott (god) and Swedish gott (good) as well as Gotland (pronounced Gottland), the island in the Baltic sea that constituted a (the?) main Viking hub in their slave trade with Jews and muslims.

Gotland in particular is famous as the probable ancestral home of the Goths: "a Gothic population had crossed the Baltic Sea before the 2nd century AD, reaching Scythia at the coast of the Black Sea in modern Ukraine where Goths left their archaeological traces in the Chernyakhov culture. In the 5th and 6th centuries, they became divided as the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, and established powerful successor-states of the Roman Empire in the Iberian peninsula and Italy. Crimean Gothic communities appear to have survived intact in Crimea until the late 18th century.



Hamlet was aGoth

The father of Shakespeare's prototype for Hamlet was a Goth from the Gothenburg area in Sweden (were Klevius father also happened to be born). These Goths came originally from Gotland via those very same waterways that were shaped already some 9,000 years ago, hence connecting the Baltic Sea with Doggerland/North Sea.

Gotland was also the home port and treasure island for the Vikings because it naturally connected West and East via Staraja Ladoga southeast of Finland on the river way down to the south. Gotland has revealed the biggest hoards of Viking age old Arab/islamic silver coins in Northern Europe.

Immediately north of Staraja Ladoga is the homeland of the Finnish national epic Kalevala which Tolkien based his writing on.

The world's oldest fishing net is found in southeastern Finland and is some thousand years older than Cheddar man the "oldest Brit".

Bromme culture existed in what is today's Sweden already 11,700–11,000 bp.

As a curiosity it might be noted that film director Ingmar Bergman lived most of his life on Gotland where some of his most powerful movies were filmed.

In conclusion one might well argue that the Baltic Sea has been a main hub since the birth of modern humans. 












The first version at the top made 1583 and below how it looks today.
The sword held over the lion's head represents the West whereas the one below the lion represents islam (via Khazars, Bolgars, Ottomans etc. - see text below).




Finland/Kvenland - the home of Kalevala and the Vikings

Background 


Precisely because the farming old Swedes were more numerous and wealthier than the Finnish speaking nomads, the original Finland-Swedish Vikings became "Swedisized". As a consequence the later Viking age looked more "Swedish". The oxymoron "Norwegian Vikings", however, has no place at all in history because neither Norwegian language nor Norwegians existed at that time.

Unlike muslims who only copied/stole (incl. "converts") what others had made possible, the Vikings really contributed something new.
 
Finland has two official languages, Swedish and Finnish. Finland is also one of the most secularized countries in the world. Finland (and huge parts of what is now Sweden and Norway) was Kvenland before the Christian crusades after which it became connected as part of Sweden for some 600 years until the 1808-9 war against Russia after which Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until Finland's independence 6, December 1917.

After the 1808-9 war the Swedish speaking intellectuals started a campaign, "we are no Swedes anymore, and we don't wanna be Russians - so let's be Finns". This strive made many a Finland-Swede translate their name into Finnish. It also resulted in the collection of the Kalevala epos (which Tolkien used as a basis for his stories). However, Elias Lönnroth's Kalevala was heavily influenced by a monotheist understanding. Luckily Juha Pentikäinen and others have now initiated a rewriting of the text clean from Christian monotheist influences.

Due to its location Finnish (and Saami) possesses extremely old words still in use (see below). And due to the interaction between old Nordic and Finnish a pattern emerged that can still be seen stretching from Finland all the way to Iceland (see below). 

No one knows the true origin of the name Kvenland. However, Klevius qualified guess is based on its history of Nordic (and Finnish) speaking (agrarian) coastal Finns robbing beautiful girls with mongoloid characteristics (which pattern you can also trace in reading Kalevala) from its Saami and Finnish speaking neighbors. Raids with light boats was a Finnish specialty inherited from the Finnish and Russian water ways they still frequented (see Origin of Vikings). And when they heard (from the Volga Bolgars and the Jewish Khazars etc) about the enormous demand and price the muslim caliphate paid for these kind of girls the commerce quickly changed from furs to walking girls.

Due to the mix of old Nordic speaking males and Finnish speaking women an early bilingual traditon was born, which helped dealing with both Swedes and Finnish speaking "Russians". At the beginning of the Viking age the "Russians" spoke Finnish which was the main language in what is now northern and mid Russia. This also explains how Fornjotur could be the King of both Finland and Gotland as well as how Rus could become so friendly with the pre-Russians that they asked him for protection against other Vikings, Jews (Khazars) etc. 

Finland has for long suffered from what Klevius calls a mongoloid complex (2003). In 1952, only seven years after the end of Finland's disastrous connection with Germany in the World War 2, apart from having its first Olympics the nation celebrated the 17-year old Armi Kuusela's victory in the Miss Universe "beauty" contest, thus finally releasing the Finns from what was considered a traumatic connection with the East and its Russian/mongoloid inhabitants.



Klevius' ethnicity


The tiny (some 300,000) Finland-Swedish ethnic minority has, apart from the tiresome, bragging and annoying islamophobe named Klevius, produced such names as Edith Södergran (modernist poet), Westermarck (anthropology), Jean Sibelius (music), Georg Henrik von Wright (Wittgenstein's successor), Lasse Wiren (athletics - double-double Olympic winner on 5,000m and 10,000m), Lindberg (music - Kraft etc), Linus Thorvald (Linux), etc etc.

This list clearly implies a Finland-Swedish complex or something (see Inside Klevius mind).


Why surprised about the fact that English is a Nordic language? Klevius has informed about it for almost a decade on the web!


* When Klevius shakes hand with native English speakers he loves to point out that 'finger', 'hand', and 'arm' all are Swedish words with exactly the same spelling and not too different pronunciation. This usually produces a nice "really". However, when he also points out that most of the non-Latin words in English also are Swedish a brief uncertain and incredulous retreat from the topic is noticeable. And, now finally the self-evident fact that even grammar is equal has been pointed out even by others.

English is a Scandinavian/Nordic (Fennoscandian*) language


* No one knows for how long Old Swedish/Nordic language(s) has been spoken in Finland. This is why not only the Scandinavian part but the whole Fennoscandian peninsula ought to be included.


Jan Terje Faarlund, professor of linguistics at the University of Oslo. "Obviously there are many English words that resemble ours. But there is something more: its fundamental structure is strikingly similar to Norwegian.

Klevius (who understands all Nordic languages incl. Finnish and most dialects): Norwegian language emerged after the Viking period (see Origin of Vikings). Its predecessor, i.e. what is called "Old Norse" but perhaps rather should be called Old Swedish or Old Nordic, is rooted in Kvenland from the cross pollination of Finnish and Nordic Germanic. Kvenish today is still very close to Finnish (more so than e.g. Estonian) yet it also contains such pecularities as meiðän ('our') which is simply meidän in Standard Finnish with a normally sounding d instead of the English sounding ð.


Kvenland (Womanland) from Finno-Ugric/Uralic to Old Swedish/Scandinavian/Nordic*


*aka "Old Norse" which might lead associations to Norway although there were no Norwegian speakers around long after the Viking age (see Origin of Vikings).

Kvenland, aka Cwenland, Kænland, Queenland, Kvinnoland, Womanland etc, is an ancient name for an area in Fennoscandia. Compare Swedish 'Kvinna' (woman) and English 'Queen' as well as Norwegian 'kone' (woman) Swedish 'kön' (sex) and English 'kin' (yes, we have Indoeuropean 'gen' but so what, where did 'gen' emerge?).

There exists a persistent "wikimyth" that Finnish language in Sweden and Norway are just a few hundred years old when in fact it's thousands of years old but due to national romanticism was explained away as caused by late immigration only.

As I already said, no one knows for sure why it was called Kvenland. However, a strong hypothesis is that the name reflects sex-slave hunt for beautiful white girls/women who were most valued on the muslim slave markets by the islamic mosques. So the Finnish empire may have existed long before it was called Kvenland.The name was just applied from the outside as a marker of its notorious records.

Kvenland appears in written sourdes from  the 9th century, and from Icelandic sources written in the 12th and 13th centuries. Since the 17th century most historians have located Kvenland somewhere around or near the Bothnian Bay, in the present-day regions of Swedish Norrbotten and Finnish Ostrobothnia as well as part of Norway where there are still a Kvenish population. The traditional East Finnish name of this area was Kainuu, and it has been suggested that the Scandinavian name of Kvenland and Kainuu share etymological roots.


Around 890 CE a Northman named Ohthere visited King Alfred of Wessex who had his stories written down by Orosius.

According to Ohthere, the Norðmanna land was very long and very narrow ... and to the east are wild mountains, parallel to the cultivated land. Finnas inhabit these mountains ... Then along this land southwards, on the other side of the mountain, is Sweden ... and along that land northwards, Kvenland (Cwenaland). The Kvens (Cwenas) sometimes make depredations on the Northmen over the mountain, and sometimes the Northmen on them.
There are large [freshwater] meres amongst the mountains,[2] and the Kvens carry their ships over land into the meres, and thence make depredations on the Northmen; they have small and very light ships.








Fornjotur* (ca 160-250 CE), the Finnish King of Kvenland and Gotland, and ancestor of the Swedish Ynglinga tree and William I of England

* there is much reason to believe that the legend about Fornjotur has more truth underneath than for example the myth about Mohammed (who was allegedly born 400 years later). Hugh Kennedy (professor of Arabic language and Arabic history): "Before Abd al-Malik (caliph 685-705) Mohammed (dead 632) is never mentioned on any official document whatsoever..."


Fornjotur, Fornjót, Fornjótr) was a king of Finland. His children are Ægir (the ruler of the sea), Logi (fire giant) and Kári (god of wind).
The name has often been interpreted as forn-jótr "ancient giant", and sometimes identified with the primeval giant Ymir. But it is also possible, as was suggested by Müller (1818), that it is one of a well-established group of names or titles of gods in -njótr "user, owner, possessor", which would make Fornjótr the "original owner".



How did primary stress on first syllable come from Kvenland to Iceland?



There was of course another language, Kvenish-Finnish, that was present in Fennoscandia and somehow influenced the ancient Norse language.

Finnish possesses some of the oldest words in the world, some of them still in their original Uralic form. In fact, the old Finnish stem seems to be closer to its distant roots than other Finno-Ugric languages despite the fact that Finland has been the most modernized of them all.


Klevius linguistic question: How was the strange affinity between Indoeuropean Icelandic and Uralic Finnish created between Kvenland and Iceland?


Whereas Indoeuropean languages are strongly rooted in a Neolithic agricultural past Uralic languages are rooted in hunting/gathering societies i.e. pre-Neolithic.

Indoeuropean Old Norse developed into "Western" and "Eastern" variants. Western Norse covered Norway and overseas settlements in Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Shetland Islands, while Eastern Norse developed in Denmark and south-central Sweden and coastal Finland.

The language of Iceland and the non Finnish or Saami Fennoscandia was practically the same up until the 14th century, when they started to deviate from each other.

During the late Old Norse period and this period there was also a considerable adoption of Middle Low German vocabulary. Similar development in grammar and phonology happened in Swedish and Danish, keeping the dialect continuum in continental Scandinavia intact, but with greater dialectal variation. This process did not, however, occur in the same way in Faroese and Icelandic. These languages remain conservative to this day, when it comes to grammar and vocabulary, so mutual intelligibility with continental Scandinavia was lost.




The Uralic languages belong to a single Eurasian belt of agglutinative languages together with the Altaic languages streching from Fennoscandia in the west to Japan in the east


Not only typological parallelism, but also stress on the first syllable as well as lack of third person pronoun sex segregation (e.g. Finnish 'hän' instead of 'he/she' apartheid) is accompanied by areal adjacency, allowing us to speak of a distinct Ural-Altaic language area and language type we may call Eurasiatic.

Some roots for Eurasiatic: mi (what?, mi/kä or mi/tä in modern Finnish), pälä (two), akʷā (water), tik (one or finger), konV (arm 1), bhāghu(s) (arm 2), bük(ä) (bend or knee), punče (hair), p'ut'V (vagina or vulva), snā (smell or nose), kamu (seize or squeeze), and parV (the verb to fly)

Modern Finnish preserves old words equal or almost equal more often than other languages

Examples of reconstructed Proto-Uralic words:

Body parts and bodily functions: *ïpti hair on the head, *ojwa head, *śilmä eye (same as in modern Finnish), *poski cheek (same as in modern Finnish), *kä(x)li tongue ('kieli' in modern Finnish), *elä- to live ('elää' in modern Finnish), *ka(x)li- to die ('kuolla', and 'kuoli' in imperf), *wajŋi breath (in Finnish 'vainaja' means a dead), *kosi cough, *kunśi urine ('kusi' in modern Finnish), *küńili tear ('kyynele' in modern Finnish), *se(x)ji pus.

Kinship terms: *emä mother (same in modern Finnish), *čečä uncle ('setä' in modern Finnish), *koska aunt, *mińä daughter-in-law ('miniä' in modern Finnish), *wäŋiw son-in-law ('vävy' in modern Finnish).

Verbs for universally known actions: *meni- to go ('mennä', 'meni' in imperf in modern Finnish), *toli- to come ('tulla', 'tuli' in imperf in modern Finnish), *aśkili- to step ('askel' is step in modern Finnish), *imi- to suck ('imi' is sucked in modern Finnish), *soski- to chew, *pala- to eat up ('pala' is a piece in modern Finnish), *uji- to swim ('ui' is swim in imperf in modern Finnish), *sala- to steal ('salata' means to hide in modern Finnish), *kupsa- to extinguish ('kupsata' used for to die in modern Finnish).

Basic objects and concepts of the natural world: *juka river ('joki' in modern Finnish), *toxi lake, *weti water ('vesi/vettä' in modern Finnish), *päjwä sun (same but also day in modern Finnish), warmth, *suŋi summer ('suvi' in modern Finnish), *śala- lightning ('salama' in modern Finnish), *wanča root ('vanka', 'vankka' means steady in modern Finnish), *ko(x)ji birch, *ka(x)si spruce ('kuusi' in modern Finnish), *sïksi Siberian pine, *δ'ï(x)mi bird cherry

Elementary technology: *tuli fire (same in modern Finnish), *śüδi coal, *äjmä needle, *pura drill ('pora' in modern Finnish), *jïŋsi bow ('jousi' in modern Finnish), *jänti bow string, *ńï(x)li arrow ('nuoli' in modern Finnish), *δ'ümä glue ('liima' in modern Finnish), *lïpśi cradle, *piksi rope, *suksi ski (same in modern Finnish), *woča fence.

Basic spatial concepts: *ïla below ('alla' in modern Finnish), *üli above ('yli' in modern Finnish), *wasa left ('vasen' in modern Finnish), *pälä side.

Pronouns: *mun I (meaning mine in modern Finnish), *tun you ('sun' meaning yours in modern Finnish), *ke- who (same in modern Finnish), *mi- what (same in modern Finnish).

The reconstructed vocabulary is compatible with a Mesolithic culture (bow, arrow, needle, sinew, but also rope, fence, cradle, ski), a north Eurasian landscape (spruce, birch, Siberian pine), and contains interesting hints on kinship structure.



The Vikings were bilingual (Finland-Swedes) Goths who could communicate both with the Finnish tribes as well as with the old Nordic/German people



In the Viking world the Jewish slave empire (Chazaria) played an important role in establishing the slave raid and trade system that served the enormous islamic hunger for white sex slaves.





Karelia's old coat of arms.



Karelia bordered the medieval Novgorod republic which was ransacked by muslim Bolgars who hunted for slaves. The southern part became an important hub in the islamic slave finance as Vikings and Kazar Jews etc served the islaic caliphate in the south and later on the Ottoman Turks.


Fair skinned female sex slaves from northern Europe were the by far most valuable according to islamic price lists

(see more about this here)



Most of what you read about Vikings on the web is wrong. The Viking age started already before 750 in the east (because of islamic demand for sex slaves). So forget about Britain 786. Also remember that if you see the words Norway or Norwegians mentioned re. Vikings then throw the link/book away. There was no Norway or Norwegians or a Norwegian language during the Viking age! Educate yourself on Origin of the Vikings.

In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus.




After the Kievan Russian state began to disintegrate in 1132, slaves became much more numerous as inhabitants of neighboring East Slavic principalities (much of the territory between Poland-Lithuania and the Volga River) became fair game for enslavement.

Jewish merchants took East Slavic slaves from Novgorod to western destinations. Other East Slavic slaves were continuously "harvested" by the Turkic peoples (Tatars) inhabiting the southern and eastern frontiers of Rus' and subsequently sold to buyers mainly in the Arab countries.

The Mongol invasions into Rus' from 1236-1240 accelerated the disintegration of Kievan Rus' that had commenced in 1132.

Continuous Tatar slave raids replaced those of the pre-1240 Turkic peoples who had roamed the Ukranian steppe. In these centuries the word "slave" was borrowed from the ethnonym "Slav."

During the ensuing period of the "Tatar yoke" (1237-1480), the export of slaves through Novgorod continued and the Novgorodian slave market at the intersection of Slave and High Streets was the most active business locale in the entire Republic of Novgorod, which encompassed much of Russia north of the Volga to the White Sea.


The Crimean Tatars had converted to islam in the 1300s and in 1475 the Crimean Khanate became a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire while itself still clinging to power over the Duchy of Muscovy.  In 1480, the Muscovites threw off the "Tatar Yoke" and began the unification of Russia under Slavic rulers.  By 1503, those rulers would declare Russia the Third Roman Empire, and take the title of Tsar.

The Crimean Tatars made use of their strategic position between the Ottomans and the Russians and supplied slaves for the Ottoman Janissary corps from the neighboring peoples to an enormous extent yet to be fully mapped.



Greedy rulers either married a muslim and naively agreed* to convert or just found islam the perfect sword for evil but profitable slave finance


* Islam is an evil dead end. A totalitarian harpoon that has only one direction unless it's stopped. This is one of the many reasons why islam is completely out of sync with Human Rights - a fact that not only Klevius but also OIC has realized!

Little is known about the timeline of the islamization of Inner Asia and the Turkic peoples who lay beyond the bounds of the caliphate. Around 7th century and 8th century, there were some states of Turkic peoples like Turkic Khazar Khaganate and Turkic Turgesh Khaganete who fought against the caliphate in order to stop Arabization and islamization in Asia. From the 9th century onwards, the Turks (at least individually, if not yet through adoption by their states) began to convert to islam. The Bulgars of the Volga, to whom the modern Volga Tatars trace their islamic roots, are noted to have adopted islamic evil early on. When the Friar William of Rubruck visited the encampment of Batu Khan of the Golden Horde, who had recently completed the Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, he noted "I wonder what devil carried the law of Machomet there".



Different political functions of the islamic myth to legitimate power



Quite contrary to the populist academic discourse that within an islamic worldview, the production of "eventually" correct ritual behavior can be a gateway for "the grace of Allah" to produce "correct belief", the crude reality of islam's own tenets points clearly - and without the slightest anomaly from non-islamic history in sight - to a profitable parasitic formula crudely chiseled on pre-existing Judaic dogmas. This formula, which in one sweep eliminates otherwise "puzzling" historical events, goes like this (taken from www.klevius.info):

The root formula of Islam (Klevius 2001)

Slavery+"infidel" racism+sex segregated rapetivism+anti human rights Sharia/apostasy ban.

Why isn't the worst crime ever against humanity criminalized, but instead protected by the very Human Rights islam opposes?!




Converts to islam don't have to understand anything to be a "good muslim" simply because accepting totalitarian islam is the only proof needed. However, other muslims might not approve of it...

Peter Klevius psychosocial Freud timeline

In Atheist* Peter Klevius series notorious "Atheist" idiots** (or just deliberate scumbags) from the past still having their sexist shadow hanging over us.

* There are true Atheists (like Klevius) and naive Atheists (like those with a too simplistic view on religion - e.g. not realizing the importance of sex segregation for the "Abrahaic religions" emanating from Zoroastrian and its prophet Zarathustra from the Russian Pontic-Caspian steppe near Ural).
** Charcot (Freud's mentor), Freud, etc. just replaced conventional religion with new forms rooted in exorcism.



Dear reader, while BBC is busy spreading fake info and islam propaganda* over ignorant license paying Brits, Klevius always guarantees real info. Judge for yourself - and complain about BBC's disgusting behavior and intellectual emptiness!

Of course it had to be a muslim presenter who 8 a.m. in the morning welcomed the Brits on Christmas day with a long story about an other muslim, etc. etc. Followed up with endless programs about how the "Abrahamic religions" (essentially to boost islam - Christianity is already dead in UK and Jews are a tiny minority) are so much better than everything else.



Henri F. Ellenberger, Peter Klevius favorite source on psychoanalysis) has been praised (but 'criticized', according to stupid religiously biased Wikipedia) for modeling his picture of the origins of psychiatry in the Enlightenment clash with Demonology — in the triumph of illuminated reason over the blindness of faith. Perhaps 'blindness of faith' is an exageration when keeping in mind that religion has very profane objectives, e.g. sex segregation.


Sharia islam is today the worst threat against women's access to full Human Rights equality. This is why Trump was a better choice for women than Clinton who strongly has advocated for sharia islam's main world organization, the Saudi steered and Saudi based OIC. Drawing (1979) and photo (2012) by P. Klevius.

The reason Klevius is self-promoting is (except for no one else daring to do it, and to serve an audience starved on the "real thing") exactly the opposite to why most bloggers (and media) do it. Compare the promotion of ordinary, or even sub-standard products among high quality ones. A reader stumbling over a blog that looks out of the ordinary and says strange (but logical) things, may need some hard facts about the author, who himself is out of the ordinary (although he calls himself "the extremely normal" to emphasize his logic and internal harmony that should attract those who value it). Dear reader. Of some reason word and phrase statistics etc. clearly show you've a positive view on Klevius. However, how do we get more people reading and understanding Klevius? If you support Wikipedia you shouldn't be forgiven for not supporting Klevius and his defense for your Human Rights, right!


Peter Klevius: Relying on my scientific methodology I enter the field of subversion* through the Trojanian pores of diffuse discourse conceptualizations. My pockets are full of "alien" thoughts and well inside, when I am throwing them around, they might reveal internal inconsistencies in the very discourse I am visiting, not sharing. My employer? Negative human rights, of course!

*the potential subversion is already there waiting for revelation via the dynamics that is created by "alien" thoughts. But "alien thoughts" are no threat to a certain discourse if they don't use this particular method.


Charcot and his school considered the ability to be hypnotized as a clinical feature of hysteria. Here Charcot demonstrating hypnosis on a "hysterical" Salpêtrière patient, "Blanche" (Blanche Wittmann), who is supported by Dr. Joseph Babiński (rear). Blanche acted"hysteric" for to prove Charcot's senseless charlatanic fantasies true. It was here Sigmund Freud got his first kick into the unethical and unscientific swamp that he called "psychoanalysis" - an extension of exorcism, now clad in a new language spiced with medical latin words.

Wikipedia's weird description of this monster of charlatanism: Jean-Martin Charcot (/ʃɑːrˈkoʊ/; French: [ʃaʁko]; 29 November 1825 – 16 August 1893) was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology.[1] He is known as "the founder of modern neurology",[2] and his name has been associated with at least 15 medical eponyms, including Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease and Charcot disease (better known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neurone disease, or Lou Gehrig disease).[1] Charcot has been referred to as "the father of French neurology and one of the world's pioneers of neurology".[3] His work greatly influenced the developing fields of neurology and psychology; modern psychiatry owes much to the work of Charcot and his direct followers.[4] He was the "foremost neurologist of late nineteenth-century France"[5] and has been called "the Napoléon of the neuroses".

Richard Webster on Charcot's student Sigmund Freud: If Freud’s early patients were, for the most part, not suffering from psychological disturbances at all, and if Freud’s therapeutic technique was founded on the medical errors of Charcot, it might well be asked how it was that he (and Breuer) succeeded in curing so many patients in the remarkable fashion attested to by the early case histories.

Peter Klevius psychosocial Freud timeline


The hysteric birth of psychoanalysis


Sigmund Freud desperately tried to "scientifically" defend how he treated his wife in a world that already had begun abandoning most of sex segregation in practical life. In fact, what many psychoanalytic feminists now ascribe to the "patriarchy" is often a product of this prolonged "artificial" sex segregation and hence due to Freud's and their own separatist efforts.

Sex segregation is the reactionary "phallus" seen as the "hystericized site of displaced" sexes in a world entering the confusion of modernity.. Feminists & Islamists = guardians of the "feminine".

The lost ghost in the machine and the psychoanalytic chameleon Mr. Nobody

There has been an all time on-going development within biology, genetics, AI research and robot technology, which narrows our view on, not only the difference between animals and humans, but also the gap between what is considered living and dead matter. Not only free will, but also properties and representations/symbols are getting all the more complicated and vanishing as their subjective meaning seems less usable in a new emerging understanding of our invironmental positioning. Although the psychoanalytic movement seems ready to confirm/adapt to this development equally fast as Freud himself changed his ideas to fit into new scientific discoveries (it was a pity he didn't get a chance to hear about Francis Crick) psychoanalysis is forever locked out from this reality. PA is doomed to hang on the back of development just as feminism and middle-class politics, without any clue on the direction (neither on the individual nor the collective/cultural level).

Psychoanalysis has survived just because of its weakest (in fact, absent) link, namely the lack of a border between folk psychology and itself. The diagnosis for psychoanalysis would consequently be borderline.

Sigmund's dream of a biological psychoanalysis was his biggest mistake.

However, for women he suggested "a normal penis several times" to keep hysteria at bay.

This timeline (launched on the web in 2003) is copied from a yet unpublished book: Homo Filius Nullius  - the Illegitimate Man by Peter Klevius. It consists of mostly Peter Klevius' own observations but includes other gathered material as well.

An interesting detail in the timeline below is Hollywood's early and strong engagement in psyhoanalysis. My working hypothesis is that it might have something to do with certain characteristics of Hollywood, which in a way, are precursors of Homo Filius Nullius and the social state he (and she - compare Finnish non-gender/sex 'hän') lives in. Attractive people were transported to this particular place where they met with other equally attractive but lonely people. As we all do know, apart from movies Hollywood’s favorite product for the media was divorce. It became cool to divorce because these attractive stars did it at an early time with quite some frequency  But for many of these stars it might not have been that cool as it appeared and most likely the introduction of psychoanalytic thinking in Hollywood was an attempt to try to better resolve personal relations on these grounds. Here again we see the same pattern of modernity, sex-segregation and lose attachment treated with the disease itself!

1879-80 Translated one volume of Mill's collected works and didn't like Mill's idea about women's emancipation and equal rights. Actually this was the real starting point for Freud's fanatic and lifelong search/construction of a "scientific" defense for sex segregation (see What is sex segregation?) in an unprecedented  time of female "gender" breakers..

1881 Sigmund Freud finally gets his delayed medical degree, and a poorly paid job.

1882 Suddenly left his job without getting a new one.

1883 Tried to convince his fiancee that Mill was a moron and that a woman (by nature) belonged to kitchen, nursing room and bed.to such an extent that it "...practically rule out any profession". However, the (deliberate?) development of psychoanalysis into a female profession (many of the female child psychoanalystst were childless including his own daughter Anna Freud), forced him to a pragmatic acceptance of professional (but sex segregated) women while reinforcing his sense that the distinction was still regarded as fundamental..

1884-5 Freud ruins his scientific reputation by presenting too hasty and erroneous conclusions about cocaine.

1885-86 Freud visits his mentor and idol Jean Charcot's lectures on "hysteria" in Paris.

1886   At the end of April, Freud, known as a “practising magnétiseur”, opens his private medical practice in an effort to economically survive after having been laughed down (because of the cocaine mess) by the Viennese scientific society.

1886-7 Turns to hypnotic suggestion based on the lectures of the pathetic Charcot in Paris.

1888 Freud begins treating Anna von Lieben, known in "Studies in Hysteria" as Caecilie M.

1889 In July, Freud begun using the cathartic method on Anna von Lieben, a wealthy morphine addict he treated twice a day for some three years.

1890-92  The “discovery” of electrical activity in the brain was debated in the Viennese ‘Centralblatt für Physiologie’. Freud and his Viennese colleagues did not know about the original discovery by the British R. Caton from 1875.

1891  Caton sends a letter to Centralblatt in which he describes his findings presented in Britain in 1875 and 1878.
(Peter Klevius is, until disproved, to be considered the first (2001) and only one (so far) to have acknowledged the crucial connection between Freud's emerging psychoanalysis and Caton's discovery). Few researcher even know abt the basic controversy (i.e. that Caton was some 17 years - sic - ahead of the Viennese scholars) underlying Klevius' theory. The implications of Klevius findings abt the Freud/Caton connection, are presented in "Pathological symbiosis", and are entirely described in yet unpublished Homo Filius Nullius.

1891  Freud’s ideas on neuronal transmission were altered because of Waldeyer’s hypothesis that the nervous impulse also had to be discontinuous.

1891 Death of Fleischl von Marxow (Freud’s friend who erroneously thought he was the first who had discovered electrical activity in the brain, and who became a cocaine addict because of Freud).

1891 On Aphasia 1891. London and New York, 1953. Indicates a psychosomatic connection between body and language.

1892 Freud moves (according to Macmillan) from the descriptive level of Charcot’s hysteria to the more sophisticated ideas of Janet (March 11).

1892 Dec. A preliminary report on hysteria. A preliminary report for the 1895 book Studies in Hysteria.

1892  First mentioning on tics.

1893  “…in mental functions something is to be distinguished, a quota of affect or a sum of excitation which possesses all the characteristics of a quantity (though we have no means of measuring it), which is capable of increase, diminution, displacement and discharge, and which is spread over the memory-traces of ideas somewhat as an electric charge is spread over the surface of a body. This hypothesis, which, incidentally already underlies our theory of ”abreaction” in our ”Preliminary Communication” (1893), can be applied in the same sense as physicists apply the hypothesis of a flow of electric fluid explaining a great variety of psychical states”.

1893 Freud, S, On the Psychical Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomena. [with J.   Breuer] SE 2, 3-17.

1894 -  The first written appearance of the word "feminism" as we know it. Two completely different "feminisms" can be exemplified by "feminine" Hubertine Auclert and "non-feminine" Madeleine Pelletier. Also compare the notion of "false feminism" ascribed to competent women competing on male turf.

1894 Freud, S, The Neuro-Psychoses of Defence. SE 3, 43-61.
.
1894  “… a complicated electrical apparatus” (in The Neuro Psychosis of Defence).
The obvious connection between Caton and Freud has to my knowledge not been pointed out before the presentation of this timeline (P. Klevius).

1894  Freud suffers from impotence. Fliess gives him cocaine to cure a sinus infection – Freud got addicted and begun his "self-analysis".

1894  December. Fliess visited Freud and examined Emma Eckstein.

1895  Women's football on the rise (e.g. Nettie Honeyball).

1895  In February Freud asked Fliess to cure Emma Eckstein’s “nasal reflex neurosis” (a hoax diagnose, see above) by unnecessarily removing the middle left concha of her nose. Emma was on the verge of bleeding to death from gauze that carelessly had been left within her nasal cavity. According to Freud Emma was not bleeding because of ruptured veins but because she had, unconsciously, fallen in love with him.

1895 First woman scales Matterhorn (Europe's highest mountain), gets big headlines and becomes notoious in Victoian circles. Did Freud think she actually climbed a penis, and did her (and other women's) strength contributed to the birth of psychoanalysis one year later?

1895  Fliess is peeping on his toddler son’s spontaneous penile erections while looking at his mother. This is then connected to Freud’s “memory” of  his desire to copulate with his mother at the age of two.

1895  May.  “a consuming passion for psychology” (a “tyrant” as Freud himself describes it in a letter to Fliess).

1895  The first Freudian psychotherapy appeared in 1895, in Freud’s contribution to his and Breuer’s Studies in Hysteria. Here Freud gives the concepts of ”resistance” and ”transference” their first definition.

1895  Freud, S, A Project for a Scientific Psychology. SE 1, 283-397.

1895  On July 25, 1895, the secret of the dream "revealed" itself to Freud.

1896  First coins the term "psychoanalysis”. Freud's father dies and Freud starts his self-analysis (according to some interpretations – but see  1894).

1896 Freud, S, The Aetiology of Hysteria.

1897  “I no longer believe in my neurotica” (seduction theory).

1897 University of Vienna for the first time permitted the enrolment of women.

1897  When Anna Freud was two or less Freud “discovered” infantile sexuality and the Oedipus complex.

1898 Freud, S, Sexuality in the Aetiology of the Neuroses.

1898 R v Krafft-Ebing: Psychology of sexual life. Mentions "psychoanalysis" (Krafft-Ebing was positive to Freud because they both shared the view that "sexuality" was world-embracing, and hence "readable" in every aspect of life. He strongly supported Freud's application to his university).

1899 Freud, S, Screen Memories.

1900  S. F. The Interpretation of Dreams published. (written in 1898-1899).

1901 In the autumn of 1901, Freud was faced with a mind far superior than his own. Otto Weininger approached him with an outline for his thesis (not the final book version) Sex and Character. Of course Freud wasn't the man to take it so he rejected the young (21) genius in the most brute way and hence probably contributed to this sensitive youngster´s suicide. Although Weininger based his thoughts erranenously on a speculative male/female "sex-fluid" in every cell (he didn't know abt DNA and therefore couldn't properly asssess the power of heterosexual attraction), his importance as a genius is the internal logic in his construction - a logic that made Wittgenstein choose Otto, but not Sigmund, to his list of a few important thinkers that had impressed him. Also see Klevius analysis of mind and awareness!.

1904  S. F. published Psychopathology of Everyday Life; and ended relationship with Fliess (who accused Freud of plagiarism).

1905  S. F. published Three Essays on Sexuality and Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious.

1907 Freud and Jung meet in Vienna.

1908  First International Psychoanalytical Congress, Salzburg,
Vienna.

1909  S. F. forms International Psychoanalytical Society with Carl Jung as its first president. Comes to US to give a series of lectures at Clark Univ. (invited by G. Stanley Hall).

1911  Adler left Freud.

1914  Jung left Freud.

1914  S. F. "On Narcissism"-- the first mentioning of the ego ideal, which will become the superego.

1915  S. F. delivers introductory lectures at University of Vienna.

1917  S. F. publishes Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis.

1918-22  S. F. analyzed his daughter Anna Freud and put more emphasis on a mother's role in a daughter's life versus the father's role as being the sole motivator for behavior.

1920  S. F. publishes Beyond the Pleasure Principle; introduces the death instinct.

1920  The first child psychoanalyst, Hermine Hug-Hellmuth, publishes “On the Technique of Child Analysis”.

1921  British FA bans women's football by the help of female physicians, who (as experts on the female body and mind) declare the game "unsuitable for women". Several of the doctors involved are now presented as feminists by feminist writers of today. And feminists should know who are feminists, shouldn't they (also see Heroic gender breaking women  -  and some tiny men)?

1921  S. F. publishes Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego; applies social context to psychoanalysis.

1921 Margaret Schönberger (Mahler, 24) had severe stomach pains and attacks that horrified her circle of friends. She was diagnosed with Heirshsprung disease, "a congenital disorder of the colon rectum which is unable to relax and permit the passage of stool. During the surgery severe adhesions were discovered and removed. After the procedure, the problem ended.

1922  Anna Freud became a member of the International Psychoanalytic Congress.

1922 Margaret Schönberger (Mahler) age 25, arrived to Vienna and was taken care of by the "expert on delinquency" August Aichhorn.

1923  A long series of operations on Freud’s jaw to remove cancer. Anna felt she had to stay with him because, not only had he been borrowing money from friends, but also he was now ill.

1923  S. F. Publishes The Ego and the Id; a final structural theory.

1923  Anna Freud, while taking care of the neighbors’ children: "I think sometimes that I want, not only to make them healthy, but also, at the same time, to have them, or at least have something of them, for myself”

1923  Sigmund Freud:"Our symbiosis with an American family, whose children my daughter is bringing up analytically with a firm hand, is growing continually stronger"

1923 Klein M. The development of a child. Int. J. Psychoanal., 4:419.

1923  Presented structural model of id, ego, & superego (at age 67).

1924 Hermine Hug-Hellmuth publishes “New Ways to the Understanding Youth”.

1924 On 9 September Hermine Hug-Hellmuth was found strangled (by the boy she had analysed) on her couch. 2.400.000 Kronen were stolen from her underwear. According to a brief entry by Siegfred Bernfeld in International Journal of Psychoanalysis Hermine expressed a desire in a will a few days before she was murdered that no account of  her life and work should appear in psychoanalytic publications!

1924 S. F. allegedly turns down an offer of $100,000 by Samuel Goldwyn to cooperate in making movies of famous love stories.

1924  Klein M. The role of school in the libidinal development of the child. Int. J. Psychoanal., 5:312-331.
.
1925 Anna Freud began getting heavily involved with Child Psychoanalysis.

1926  Infant analysis., Int. J. Psychoanal., 7:31-63.

1926 Publishes Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety.

1926 Helene Deutsch began analyzing Margaret Schönberger (Mahler). After 14 months of cancellations she said Margaret was "unanalyzable".

1927 Symposium about the Freud/Klein controversy, arranged by Jones.

1927 August Aichhorn (who had a “personal relationship” with her) became Margaret Schönberger’s training analyst.

1927  Anna Freud, Eva Rosenfeld and Dorothy Burlingham organized a school for local children, later, Hampsted War Nursery research.

1927 Anna Freud’s first book entitled Introduction to the Technique of Child Analysis. It was a collection of all her lectures, and a direct attack at Melanie Klein's theories.

1927  S. F. publishes The Future of an Illusion; debunks religion on rational, scientific grounds.

1933 Margaret Schönberger (Mahler) was finally accepted as an analyst.

1934-6 (?) Rolf (who strangled Hermine Hug Hellmuth 1924) was released and started chasing the psychoanalytic movement and especially Helene Deutch). Deutch’s husband hired two protectors and Rolf eventually disappeared).

1942  M. Mahler: Pseudoimbecility: a Magic Cap of Invisibility.

1944  M. Mahler: Tics and Impulsions in Children: A Study of Motility.

1947  "The Hampstead Clinic is sometimes spoken of as Anna Freud's extended family, and that is how it often felt, with all the ambivalence such a statement implies," one of her staff wrote

1949  Margaret Mahler gives the first hint of her coming theory about symbiosis in a footnote in ‘Clinical studies in benign and malignant cases of childhood psychosis – schizophrenia-like”, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol 19, s 297, fotnot.

1949 Therese Benedek published what was perhaps the first use of the concept of ‘symbiosis’ to characterize the early mother-infant unit.

1951  John Bowlby: Maternal Care and Mental Health," published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1952. ). It stimulated future studies of infant-mother bonding and the effects of early separation.

1955  Mahler and Gosliner presents an idea about human symbiosis and separation/individuation, that launches the research project “The natural history of symbiotic child psychosis” at Masters Children’s Center in New York.

1957  Bowlby's first formal statement of Attachment Theory, ‘The Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother’was read to the British Psychoanalytic Society. The paper was controversial. Donald Winnicott: "It was certainly a difficult paper to appreciate without giving away everything that has been fought for by Freud". Anna Freud: "Dr Bowlby is too valuable a person to get lost to psychoanalysis".
.
1957  The revelation of the deeds of “the real Psycho”, Ed Gein. Although he suffered and was diagnosed with severe paranoid schizophrenia, the popular “psycho”-analytic “diagnosis” about a too close attachment with his mother is the one that still labels him. When Ed appeared in the psychoanalytic circles and popular culture (which are almost the same as has been noted above, i.e. that psychoanalysis far from being radical can thank its success precisely because it is reactionary) he fulfilled every possible expectation.

1950-64  When Leo Rangell arrived in Los Angeles in 1946, he felt that psychoanalysis seemed ideal. Psychoanalysis was then, according to Rangell, 'as golden as the Southern California sun'. The treatment of the war neuroses together with the arrival of the European analysts who had fled Hitler advanced psychoanalysis, attracting much professional and popular interest. While LAPSI had become almost paralyzed in the late 1940s, the period following the split became for some a 'golden age' for psychoanalysis'. Both societies expanded and graduates quickly developed full analytic practices. Mel Mandel who began training at LAPSI in 1952 recalled that the animosity between the societies 'was as thick as a heavy fog'. Still, within LAPSI the 1950s provided some 'periods of quiescence'.
By the early 1960s, the 'golden age' was over.

1957-61  In 1947, Ernst Simmel appointed Greenson as a training analyst. After the split Greenson became president of the Los Angeles Psychoanalytic Society (1951-53) and Dean of Education (1957-61). He was Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the UCLA Medical School.

1959  Mahler et al’s follow up study with normal children and their mothers.

1959  Psycho, book by Robert Bloch (compared to the movie a more incestuous relationship between a 41 year old man and his mother).

1960  Psycho by Alfred Hitchcock (about a young man that killed his mother). Based on Robert Bloch’s novel but influenced by the screen player Joseph Stefano and the information he got from his psychoanalysts (compare the LAPSI controversy among US psychoanalysts at the time). The movie can be interpreted as a mix of Kleinian and Mahlerian thoughts on the mother/son-relationship. "He used to ask me about my analysis. Many of the things I supplied for Norman's background were not in the book because I was learning in analysis why boys killed their mothers. I would tell Hitch all these things. I told him I felt I could have killed my mother at a certain point in my life, and it was sort of a miracle that I hadn't done that. He thought all that was very interesting."

1963-65  A follow up study to the follow up study was granted and launched for M. Mahler et al. This study is presented in The psychological birth of the human infant (see below).

1968 Ralph (Romi) Greenson was closely connected to Anna Freud and her group in London. His Foundation for Research in Psychoanalysis in Beverly Hills provided an important source of funds for Anna Freud's work in London as well as for Albert Solnit's New Haven group around the journal, The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. The fund financed Anna Freud's purchase of Freud's London home and half of the Hampstead Clinic's 1968 budget shortfall of $60,000. The chief wealthy donor for this Foundation was one of Greenson's patients, Lita Annenberg Hazen.


Freudian chock waves also reached Sweden.

1970; nr 14 Socialstyrelsens Råd och anvisningar (Advises and Direktions from the Social Boyard) 1970 no 14 Åtgärder mot misshandel av barn (tar även upp psykiskt skadlig behandling). Measures against child abuse (including psychological abuse).

1972  Barnbyn Skå starts treating families in accordance with a psychoanalytic "understanding". A main focus is laid on parent’s “lack of understanding their children".

1973  Beyond the Best Interests of the Child, by Joseph Goldstein, Anna Freud and Albert J. Solnit (financially contributed to Anna Freud’s Hampstead Clinic).

1975  The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant (M. Mahler et al).

1976  The UKÄ-report 1975:24 officially introduces psychoanalysis (psychotherapy and psycho-social work) in the state financed social work in Sweden.

1978  As a result of the official means now available because of the UKÄ report, a psychoanalytic research group, including Sven Hessle, is put together at Barnbyn SKÅ.

1979  Alice Miller: The Drama of the Gifted Child (see Alice Miller's genosuicide)

1979/80:1  Government Bill introduces LVU, the new child protection act. Main features include the suppression of the word “compulsory”, as well as the removal of the punishing aspect of measures directed towards children and youth.

1980  Alice Miller: Det självutplånande barnet in Swedish (Das Drama des begabten Kindes und die Suche nach dem wahren Selbst)

1980  The Shining (movie about domestic violence by the father).

1981  Alice Miller: Prisoners of Childhood.

1981 Socialstyrelsens Allmänna råd (General advices from The Social Board) 1981:2 LVU warns for “destructive bonds” between parent and children, and the necessity of compulsory care because of these ties.

1983  Alice Miller: For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-rearing and the Roots of Violence.

1984  The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant (M. Mahler et al) is published in Swedish.

1986  Sven Hessle introduces “symbiotic rejection ”, a concept he later (2001) seems to be less convinced about.

1987 BRIS (a society connected to Anna Freud) contributes to the preparatory works for a revision of LVU by stating that "symbiosis is the most fundamental of dangers facing a child and thus should be used as a criterion for separating children from their parents".

1989/90:28  Government Bill proposing the new revised LVU including “pathological symbiosis”.

1991-03-01 The revised LVU (SFS Act No: 1990:52) including “Pathological symbiosis” as a legal criterion to take the child into state "care".

For a detailed scientific analysis of the stealthy introduction of "pathological symbiosis" in the Swedish child protection act read Klevius thesis: "Pathological Symbiosis" in LVU
- Relevance, and Sex Segregated Emergence.



Peter Klevius comparison of early female child psychoanalysts (in Pathological Symbiosis, 2004:46).


3.3 Symbiosis in psychoanalytic epistemology


S. Freud never seems to have used the term “symbiosis” to refer to phenomenon associated with psychoanalytic concepts of development (T. M. Horner 1985) in the sense presented here. Sandor Ferenczi, who was the psychoanalytic thinker that, from M. Mahler’s teenage and on, together with A. Aichhorn was the most influential on her development, contributed to this topic already in 1913 by asserting omnipotence as embedded in an original undifferentiated state (ibid.). In the 1920’s Jean Piaget, who focused his research in developmental psychology and genetic epistemology on how knowledge grows, referred to the non-differentiation of self and others in the child’s developmental process (Piaget 1929). Freud’s follower, Otto Rank, used separation-individuation and symbiotic modes of functioning to deal with the “trauma of birth” part of his central thesis in Truth and Reality, published in 1929 (1968). In Escape from Freedom Erich Fromm[53] presents the idea of symbiosis connected to his social psychoanalysis (1941). His description of separation-individuation is, according to T. M. Horner, essentially the same as that later presented by M. Mahler. In 1949 M. Mahler gives the first hint of her evolving theory about symbiosis in a footnote in ‘Clinical studies in benign and malignant cases of childhood psychosis – schizophrenia-like’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Vol 19, p 297, footnotes. The same year, 1949, Therese Benedek published what was perhaps the first use of the concept of ‘symbiosis’ to characterize the early mother-infant unit (1949). This is one year after the “invention” of the “schizophrenogenic mother” (also in a footnote, see footnote 54 below). In 1975 M. Mahler et al published the main work The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant.

A precursor to the idea of symbiotic relationship between mother and child is clearly visible in A. Aichhorn’s method of creating dependency in children and youth (1936). Furthermore most of A. Freud and M. Mahler’s contributions to child psychoanalysis were presented during the period of sexual counter-revolution between the 1930’s and the 1960’s. According to L. Appignanesi & J. Forrester the mid-twentieth century was a special time of emphasis rather on a proper motherhood instead of a penis envy transformed to competition with males (1992:458).


3.4 The emergence of “pathological symbiosis”

3.4.1 Early child psychoanalysts


The history of child psychoanalysis begins with Sigmund Freud’s case[54] of the five-year-old “Little Hans”, published in 1909. However, treatment of delinquent children and youth by the means of psychoanalysis got a bad start for the first female child psychoanalyst, Hermine Hug-Hellmuth, who also was an important influential of Anna Freud. H. Hug-Hellmuth´s analysis/treatment of her first child client, ”Rolf”, seems to have miserably failed.  The boy got a bad history of foster homes and boarding schools and eventually killed and robbed his analyst[55] the same year, 1924, when her ‘New Ways to the Understanding of Youth’ was published (L. Appignanesi & J. Forrester 1992:196-203). More than three decades later Margaret Mahler presents her view on how a too close, “symbiotic” attachment between parent and child causes pathology and delinquency.


3.4.2 “Black Devil” [56] mothering the “frail child”[57]


According to R. Webster, her father entrusted Anna Freud with the “frail child” of the psychoanalytic movement. She then guarded it with all the jealousy and all the fierceness of a mother protecting her own child (1995:402). “From the beginning Anna did not form a close bond with her mother” (J. Bumb 2002) and Freud’s analysis of his daughter was aimed to support her to develop the right “femininity” thus helping her getting married in an appropriate way (R. Webster 1995:409-418). S. Freud’s emphasise on the pre-Oedipal stages in 1918-1922 may be related to this. Anna stated, “I wanted beautiful clothing and a number of children but I considered myself to be too shabby and inconspicuous” (J. Bumb 2002). The family referred to her and her sister as the “beauty and the brains”. According to Anna she never wrote much on female issues within psychoanalysis because she felt that she identified with male case studies. She was then sent, together with her grandmother, to Sicily and other parts of Italy to improve her health[58] – probably depression and anorexia – (J. Bumb 2002) and to make her more “joyful” and “marriageable” (Webster 1995:407-409). “According to Freud’s own theories his analysis of his daughter was an attempt to resolve her problems with her sexuality. Psychoanalytic theory suggested that Anna had become fixated at an essentially infantile stage, and that she had simultaneously identified with the father who had supposedly been the object of her first sexual desires”[59] (ibid. 415).

A. Freud’s special mix of career and psychological motherhood begun in 1923 when she cared and analysed the children of Freud’s neighbours who lived in the same house. She vicariously tried to be a mother for them (from Young-Bruehl[60] 1994, in J. Bumb 2002). “…I have this dependency, this wanting to have something, even leaving my profession aside, in every nook and cranny of my life." According to S. Freud "our symbiosis with an American family, whose children my daughter is bringing up analytically with a firm hand, is growing continually stronger" (Dyer, 1983 in J. Bumb 2002). In Anna Freud: A Biography, E. Young-Bruehl states: “She remained a ‘vestal’ – to use the apt word Marie Bonaparte later chose to signal both Anna Freud’s virginity and her role as the chief keeper of her father’s person and his science, psychoanalysis.” ( in J. Bumb 2002).

In addition to a strong wish for motherhood, and a strategy to create dependent children in the analysis (compare A. Aichhorn above and below), knowing what is best for the child seems to have been the main characteristic of A. Freud’s child psychoanalytic approach, all of which is embedded in a rigidly sex-segregated discourse. Half a century since the first analysis of the Burlingham children A. Freud co-authored Beyond the Best Interest of the Child, mentioned above as the main source for the “children’s need” approach, which also became the view of the Swedish legislator. We are here warned for the “confusion” of “insufficient” sexual identities: “The sexual identities of the parents may be insufficiently resolved so as to create confusion in the child about his own sexual identity.” (A. Goldstein et al 1973:15).

Anna Freud showed a visceral antipathy against Melanie Klein, the foremost child psychoanalyst of the time. According to Alix Strachey, Anna hated M. Klein, the “ultra-sexual Semiramis waiting to be pounced on”, simply on personal grounds (L. Appignanesi & J. Forrester 1992:289) thus supporting a more personal view on the work of A. Freud and its motives as a whole. A. Freud’s influence in the field of child psychoanalysis grew rapidly and “the Hampstead Clinic is sometimes spoken of as Anna Freud's extended family, and that is how it often felt, with all the ambivalence such a statement implies,” one of her staff wrote (J. Bumb 2002).

According to Anna Freud drives play a major role in the psychological development of a child and a teenager (1994). The force of the sexual instinct can be regarded as the energy underlying sexual urges i.e. the “libidinal energy” of the child, meaning the energy of the child’s sexual activities. In the same manner “aggressive energy” underlies the aggressive urges of the child. The flow of this energy, says A. Freud, we have to try to observe in the child if we want to have any chance to guide and influence it (A. Freud 1992:69). She then outlines the child’s fight against its family ties:

On the line from Biological Unity with the Mother to the Adolescent Revolt[61] against parental influence, we expect the normal child to negotiate a large number of libidinal and aggressive substations such as: the symbiotic, autistic, separation-individuation phases (Mahler); the part-object (M. Klein), need-fulfilling, analytic relationship; the stage of object constancy; anal-sadistic ambivalence; the triangular phallic-oedipal relationship; the latency extension of ties to peers, teachers, the community, and impersonal ideals; pre- adolescent regressions; adolescent struggle against infantile ties and search for objects outside the family (1982:63).

Early stages of infantile sexuality, not the puberty, are crucial due to the normal or abnormal development of the child as well as for its capacity to love (A. Freud 1994:116-117). But reversed, this statement would imply that puberty, not early stages of infantile sexuality, should be the crucial, measurable variable, revealing deviance. Thus, instead of focusing on uncertain and quantitatively, immeasurable mystical[62], sexual traits from early childhood – deformed by the hypothetical repression/unconsciousness hypothesis – there may be alternative hypotheses better in accordance with measurable deviance. One can, for example, reverse the separation-individuation thesis of M. Mahler, hence narrowing an attachment approach. According to this, deviance and delinquency are negatively correlated to attachment between parent and child. But contrary to this, A. Freud expects the normal child to develop from the biological unity with the mother to a defense against parental influence. A. Freud’s own personal situation is reflected when she states that:

…parents’ feelings for their children arise from the depth of their inner lives and are based on procreation and pregnancy, on the emotional dependence of the child, and on the unquestioned proprietary rights of the parents. None of these feelings, however, have any significance for the professional. I cannot help seeing it as our task to arouse this type of interest (deeper dependency on their side, or deeper bonds from the side of the adult) in all the people who work with children. Not love, for which there is no real basis, but an insatiable curiosity to learn more about the problems of child development seems to me the appropriate bond which ties the professional workers to the child in their care, irrespective of the fact whether work is located in school, in the hospital, in a social agency, or in the child therapist’s office (1982:298-299).

Although Anna Freud emphasized a limited love approach she does not seem to have considered the balance between the subjective, human and the professional[63]. Moreover, an important, but perhaps also misleading, key to A. Freud’s understanding and interpretation of children lies in “the parent’s bedroom”:

I and my co-workers could demonstrate to them how often their playrooms became stages where sexual and aggressive scenes in the parental bedroom were acted out by the children, and that understanding of this nonverbal communication offered a key to the children’s confusions, distresses, anxieties, unruliness, and uncooperativeness, i.e., to behavior problems which remained inexplicable otherwise (1982:309-310).

Although Beyond the Best Interest of The Child served as an influential guide for those who argued for the removal of the child from their parents, she also strongly emphasized, according to L. Appignanesi & J. Forrester, a child’s need for “unbroken continuity of affectionate and stimulating relationships” (1992:304). In fact, her contribution seems to have rested in a worry about children in temporary foster placement. This aspect of A. Freud’s later thinking seems not to be reflected in the preparatory works of the revised LVU.



3.4.3 An un-analyzable, “sticky libido” “disturbed by motherhood”


Psychological symbiosis is a key concept intimately connected to M. Mahler’s work. Consider, says P. Stepansky, its widespread usage: “To the extent that when mental health workers and psychologically astute laymen characterize relationships of extreme dependency as ‘symbiotic relationships’, and speak of the chronic needs of such people for support and reassurance as ‘symbiotic needs’, they operate within a Mahlerian paradigm.” (P. Stepansky 1988:xvii). M. Mahler took her inspiration directly from Anna Freud, in theory as well as in observational techniques, which she extended to the use of film cameras. But who was M. Mahler?

Expectations on a girl’s development to a woman in a rigidly dichotomized gender world were extremely pronounced in A. Freud and M. Mahler’s upbringing. “Growing up for Margaret was not a happy time, she had a very low self-esteem and was jealous of the praises that Suzanne received from their mother.” (L. Woolf 2002). Margaret obviously did not fulfil the gender expectations of her time, and in an extension she seems to have internalised her childhood experiences in her evaluation of motherhood:

Margaret once overheard her mother say to Suzanne “I have brought you into this world, I suckle you, I love you, I adore you, I live only for you, you are my whole life.” Margaret’s heart being shattered, replied, “And I, I was born to my father.” Margaret later believed that the way her mother treated her was the reason she grew such an interest in paediatrics and psychoanalysis (L. Woolf 2002).

A. Freud and M. Mahler had similar relations to their fathers who supported a “tomboyish” profile while they were young and later on pushed them back into the “womanhood” and “femininity” of the 19th Century. The clash between out-dated femininity and modern intellectuality seems to have severely affected M. Mahler:

Margaret's father supported her and watched while Margaret excelled in Math and Science. Margaret felt she needed to make up where she was lacking, and gave up her feminine self-esteem for an intellectual self-esteem. Crying one day to her father because none of the boys noticed her he replied, “You don't need a man, you are man enough for yourself.” After realizing she would not be a successful sculptor, she decided to enrol in Medical school in January of 1917. Margaret’s father was so proud she was successful in gaining admission. Though he encouraged her to stay away from anything too masculine and to study ophthalmology, because it was “dainty” (L. Woolf).

Already in her teens M. Mahler developed a “deep adolescent friendship” with her high school classmate Alice Balint, another famous theorist of the mother-infant relationship. M. Mahler ended up as a paediatrician on a well-baby clinic in Vienna after having finished her medical and psychoanalytic training (M. J. Buhle 1998:246-248). Her early professional career became strongly influenced by sex segregation and a demand to fulfill her femininity, and especially her “motherhood”:

von Pirquet’s appreciation of my research skills did little to mitigate his absolute horror at the prospect of having any woman in a position of authority. Thus, when I later requested a promotion from ”apprentice” {Hilfärztin) to ”assistant” paediatrician, he replied, ”I will never have a woman as an assistant. You are very smart, and I like you very much, but if one is a woman, and especially if one looks like you, one should marry and have children.” The remark about the desirability of a woman who ”looked like me”, marrying instead of pursuing a profession, was repeated on more than one occasion. I recall, as well, von Pirquet’s comment the first day I donned glasses at the clinic. Inspecting me carefully, he remarked: “Do me a favour. Put those glasses in your pocket,” by which he conveyed the clear meaning that he couldn’t stand them on my face! This disparaging estimation notwithstanding, I idealized von Pirquet and regressed to the point of being well nigh ”in love” with him. (M. Mahler 1988:45).

August Aichhorn, M. Mahler’s tutor and most powerful influential on her “formative years”, was “a mysterious man who lived a strange and charmed life with close connections to the underworld[64] of Vienna” (M. Mahler 1988:51-54). He analyzed her when the therapy with Helene Deutsch miserably failed (see below). According to P. Stepansky, A. Aichhorn also had a “personal relationship” with M. Mahler who was in her early twenties back then. These topics were obviously still too difficult to face when M. Mahler, at the age of 87, was preparing her autobiography (1988:xxxiv). But regarding symbiosis A. Aichhorn’s concept “dependency relationship” was especially important for M. Mahler:

Aichhorn used dependency relationship to ”show” that the child had chosen his delinquent life-style on the basis of past frustrations, abuse, or misunderstandings, but that this life-style was not appropriate to current circumstances. “He was a master at drawing the unconscious motivation out of a child’s recital of circumstance and happenstance and then confronting the child with the underlying reason for his delinquency… These counselling strategies ushered in the second stage of treatment in which Aichhorn undertook to make the
child, in his own words, ”as neurotic as he can be made” in order to render him analysable (M. Mahler 1988:51-53).

According to S. Freud the essence of the analytic profession is feminine and the psychoanalyst “a woman in love” (L. Appignanesi & J. Forrester 1992:189). But psychoanalytically formalized sex and sex segregation also seem to have been troublesome components in the lives of female psychoanalysts struggling under a variety of assumed, but irreconcilable femininities and professional expectations. How sex segregation was experienced back then is perhaps best illustrated by Helene Deutsch in Psychology of Women: “She passively awaits fecundation: her life is fully active and rooted in reality only when she becomes a mother. …This speculation, which is based on my own experience, can perhaps be confirmed by a more objective observation: no human being has great a sense of reality as a mother.” According to H. Deutsch “the most miserable feminine type in existence” is a woman who is “disturbed by motherhood” and who “protects herself from the development of feminine qualities” (1944:140-142). H. Deutsch’s emphasise on motherhood has its modern child psychoanalytic counterpart in Daniel N. Stern’s[65] “motherhood constellation” (1995). This stays in sharp contrast with the striking lack of motherhood in pre-historic records (R. Tannahill 1992:36-37).

Because of the above it seems less surprising that M. Mahler’s career within the psychoanalytic movement was initiated by a painful clash with H. Deutsch, who, encouraged by Ferenczi, became her first training analyst. However, after 14 months of constant cancellations H. Deutsch insisted that M. Mahler was “un-analysable” (L. Woolf 2002). According to H. Deutsch, M. Mahler-Schoenberger[66] had a “sticky libido” (M. Mahler 1988:60). Although they apparently did not cope well with each other they also shared some similarities. H. Deutsch’s main “love affair” throughout her life was her father, whereas her mother’s role mainly seems to have been to watch guard Helene’s “femininity” thus causing an early rebellion (L. Appignanesi & J. Forrester 1992:307-328). But unlike M. Mahler and A. Freud, H. Deutsch seems to have emphasized the fulfilment of femininity through real motherhood.

The fact that M.Mahler’s major works are published after her menopause may be considered when evaluating the background of the concept of ”pathological symbiosis” and its connection to her interpretation of “motherhood” and “femininity”. “Margaret loved working with children’s clinical studies on childhood psychosis, it was her passion. She loved the way the children gave her all of their attention and enjoyed working with her as well” (L. Woolf 2002). Her own description is revealing:

Paediatrics, I should perhaps explain, represented a compromise of sorts: it would enable me to be what my father was, while simultaneously accommodating my desire perhaps my outstanding “feminine” trait to work with children. At the time, the desire to become a baby doctor, and thereupon to be a practicing physician like my father coexisted with the equity strong desire to become a psychoanalyst like Ferenczi, the warm father figure I had encountered in the Kovacs household (M. Mahler 1988:23-24).

Like most psychoanalysts, M. Mahler’s theoretical method relays on the use of “normal development” as a reference for the abnormal. In a fast changing world such an approach does not, neither however, necessarily takes enough into account an all time ongoing change in human behaviour nor does it allow for historical flexibility in human societies. Hence the “normal” may in fact rather be interpreted as traces of the past, and as such of limited value in assessing the development of contemporary children. On top of this comes the fact that the scientific basis for M. Mahler’s research seems weak. It is difficult to explain, say M. Mahler et al, how the self-object-representations of the symbiotic phase develop into a self-representation  (1984:244). The results follow from a complicated process of conclusions based on rules that are not clearly established. This is especially true for psychoanalytic research (ibid. 272). An additional problem is hinted at when M. Mahler et al, “half-way through the examination”, decided not to include those children (25 percent) who did not fit into the categories created by the team (ibid. 282). A. Freud taught us, say M. Mahler et al, that children’s playing with their mothers from the age of seven months is not the result of altruistic behaviour[67]. We think the purpose is to discriminate the child’s view on its body from that of the object (M. Mahler et al 1984:245). Briefly, says M. Mahler, “one could summarize my hypothesis as follows: whereas in primary autism there is a de-animated frozen wall between the subject and the human object, in symbiotic psychosis, on the other hand, there is fusion, melting, and lack of differentiation between the self and the no self” (1979:5). This view constituted a considerable brake to traditional psychoanalysis and places the parent in the position of being potentially accused for treating the child in a deviant way. M. Mahler describes the theoretical introduction of the parent (mother) in the realm of the child’s “mental apparatus”:

The whole idea of the mother-infant dual unity, for example, originates in their (Ferenczi[68], Herman, Bak, Benedek) theoretical and clinical perspectives. This developmental viewpoint did not gain expression in the German or Viennese psychoanalytic literature of the time. It is not even found in the later work of Anna Freud. At her Hampstead Clinic, the mother-child pairing was surely recognized, but the child was evaluated separately. “Leave the mother in the waiting room; she is tired,” the Hampstead analysts would say. Anna Freud and her collaborators were concerned almost exclusively with the intra-psychic, which they believed to be the only proper domain of psychoanalysis. Indeed, the intra- psychic is the main thing, but as I have undertaken to show over a lifetime of research and writing, the intra-psychic only evolves out of the differentiation from the individually undifferentiated matrix of mother and child. At the Hampstead Clinic during the 1930’s and forties the clinic analysts had to take great pains to differentiate their position from that of both Melanie Klein and D. W. Winnicott. It was Winnicott it will be recalled, who claimed that there is no such thing as a baby without a mother (M. Mahler 1988:16).

M. Mahler’s method in practical use is described in a paper from 1977 concerning the assessment of narcissistic and borderline personalities in the boy Sy. Two main characteristics in the assessment are recognizable: 1) strong structural expectations and b) “biologism” (constitution) as an alternative explanation when negative expectations are not fulfilled. At first Sy is assembled into the theoretical framework:

Sy’s sub phase developmental history was characterized by prolongation up to his twentieth month of the nocturnal “child-lover-at-the-breast” symbiosis. This, without more than a nominal experiencing of the practicing and rapprochement sub phases of separation-individuation, was overlapped by and continued as a bizarrely frank oedipal relation with his mother and later with his father (M. Mahler1979:201).

In the next step, Sy’s mother is accused for causing borderline in her son:

From the time he weaned himself and walked, Sy was treated by the mother as her “man,” with reciprocal behaviour on his part. It is a demonstration in statu nascendi and step by step of what Kernberg (1967) describes as the genetic-dynamic analysis of the borderline personality’s oedipus complex. He says: “What is characteristic of the borderline personality organization… is a specific condensation between pregenital and genital conflicts, and a premature development of oedipal conflicts …” (p. 678 in M. Mahler1979:201-202).

However, because of “lack of space”, all the failures of Sy’s poor ego function cannot be elaborated. One example is given, though:

We could follow, in the second part of Sy’s third as well as in his fourth, fifth, and sixth years, the vicissitudes of the failure of the ego’s function of normal repression. There were many instances of this failure, but for lack of space we cannot elaborate on them. An example might suffice: Sy remembered minute details about the Centre, which the other children had completely repressed. These details were syncretically retained by his ego’s pathological memory function (SPI:11 in M. Mahler 1979:201-202).

There are no hints given, except of this fairly poor one, due to the disastrous powers assumed to reside in Sy. M. Mahler and her research team, however, are deeply concerned: “Sy’s intra-psychic conflicts can be only guessed at, of course, and we would like to get Sy into analysis, but both parents are opposed to it” (M. Mahler1979:201-202). Quite contrary to M. Mahler’s prediction it all seemed to get a happy end – except for the teachers’ un-explained irritation with the family:

Follow-up home and school interviews of Sy in his eleventh year described him as faring much better than we would have predicted. His academic achievement in an honors class in a local public school is excellent and he is fairly popular with his classmates. The teachers, however, could not suppress their irritation with Sy and his family (M. Mahler1979:201-202)..

The explanation to this incomprehensible success M. Mahler finds in Sy’s biological constitution:

We believe that the positive qualities that saved Sy from psychosis were his excellent endowment, for example, the way in which he made up for his slow locomotor development by becoming extremely proficient in gymnastics (his favourite activity was acrobatics) (M. Mahler 1979:201-202).

A similar reference to biological factors, however, is completely absent in the case of “another girl” who, during the last couple of days before she arrived at the Centre, had been unable to pass her stool. According to M. Mahler et al, the 29-month-old girl’s behaviour was extraordinary because she liked to play with water in the children’s playroom, and the most plausible explanation to this was a “compulsion”. When she sat on the toilet the “observer” reported that she looked worried and asked not to let the mother in. The “observer” asked her to tell more about it[69]. Then, we are informed, through the “observer”, that the girl said: “Mother hurts me” (this happened during the most intense “the battered child”-debate). But when the pain increased the girl asked for her mother, who then read a book for her until she was released and happy. According to M. Mahler et al, the stool was passed when the girl saw a picture of a foul and shortly after she had pointed to a picture in the book saying: “Dad has a pig in his belly”. This has to be explained as the result of a poor mother relation. Later the girl did very well at school and her social development was good (1984:99-103). This case is of special interest because of its close resemblance with the private life of M. Mahler herself. As noted above, she suffered from a poor connection to her mother and in 1921 she had severe stomach pains and attacks that horrified her circle of friends. She was diagnosed with Heirshsprung’s disease, a congenital disorder that makes one unable to relax and permit the passage of stool. After medical treatment the problem ended. Considering the psychoanalytic interest in anal problems the connections above may not be surprising.



3.4.4 Main characteristics of pioneering child psychoanalysts


M. Mahler, who was childless[70], intellectually relied on S. Freud and his childless daughter Anna. She made her contributions to child psychoanalysis after her menopause and mainly in the especially sex-segregated period from the 1940´s to the 1960´s[71]. A comparison reveals that the similarities between A. Freud and M. Mahler stay in sharp contrast to the view represented by Melanie Klein, the mother of three and a female child psychoanalyst of the less sex-segregated 1920’s. M. Klein was considered a dissident in the psychoanalytic movement because of her early insertion of the Oedipus complex and her suggestion of a primary femininity phase for both sexes (L. Appignanesi & J. Forrester 1992:451-452). Having in mind that M. Mahler’s “pathological symbiosis” concerns mothers, and that “motherhood” is intimately connected to “femininity”, two opposite views on mother/child relations emerge. Whereas the Kleinian view emphasizes the child’s destructive and even violent tendencies towards the mother, the view of A. Freud/M. Mahler recognizes the mother as the main source of pathology.

M. Klein compared free associations with the play of a child and, like S. Freud himself, analysed her own children (Webster 1995:431-432). But in contrast to the view that small children have a weak and unformed superego, she considered the superego of a young child as monstrous, because of early – even before birth – persecutory experiences and fantasies. The superego, hence, should not be strengthened, as A. Freud advocated, but rather be modified to help its integration (L. Woolf 2002). Thus M. Klein’s mother appears to be a resource rather than a threat. Where M. Mahler is searching for a possible “parasitic parent”, M. Klein sees “good enough mothers”. Whereas M. Mahler emphasizes the victimization of the child who has not been properly released from the mother, M. Klein’s approach includes an inherent “badness” in the child in accordance with S. Freud’s own theories. In M. Mahler’s theory the idyllic Eden in the form of the mother/child-symbiosis has to be broken up for the survival of the child, whereas M. Klein’s children already from the beginning were basically paranoid. And whereas S. Freud introduced the super-ego at the age of five, M. Klein inserts it at the age of five month (M. Klein et al 1995:29-35). M. Klein, contrary to A. Freud and M. Mahler, remembered her childhood as mostly serene and happy. She was tremendously impressed and stimulated by her father's intellectual achievements and he was always ready to answer her many questions. M. Klein had a good relation to her mother. Opposite A. Freud and M. Mahler she did not cope well with S. Ferenczi[72] (H. Segal 2003).

In contrast to M. Klein, but in accordance with M. Mahler, A. Freud traces the threats against the child’s healthy development to its mother. The emerging picture is a sensitive, vulnerable being, incapable of adaptation to certain of its mother’s behaviour. Unexplained symptoms are interpreted as psychological:

So far as they (the earliest disorders) have no purely organic cause, they can be traced to interaction of inborn modes of functioning with the mother’s handling of these given potentialities, i.e., her more or less skilful or insensitive, well- or ill-timed response to the infants needs; or they can be traced to the infants high sensitivity to the mother’s emotional states, her anxieties, her moods, her predilections, and her avoidances. Un-pleasure or distress due to either cause can find discharge only in two manners: either through crying, or by way of physical pathways within the somatic areas mentioned above” (A. Freud 1982:19).

Apart from the fact that the above seems more like a simple and quite obvious qualitative evaluation of different methods of parenting wrapped into the mystique of something[73] “discharged through somatic pathways”, a comparison with the view of M. Klein is striking. M. Klein believed that in the play young children “ceaselessly imagined how they might fellate or castrate their fathers, defile or attack their mother’s breast, or imaging or recalling their parents copulating (R. Webster 1995:431-432). But according to A. Freud: “Where a mother, for whatever reason, is unable to give adequate comfort to her infant, this may have a lasting effect on this individual’s own capacity to cope with even normal amounts of un-pleasure, pain, and anxiety, i.e., on his frustration tolerance.” (1982:21). Furthermore, although kinship and other family ties may be the more important the older the child gets because of a widening and more complex life-sphere and a corresponding need of a closer and more sophisticated attachment A. Freud’s following statement reveals a quite limited picture of “the parental task” seemingly utterly devoid of thoughts on continuity, especially over generations:

With the blood tie wholly ignored at this age, he recognizes as his parents the adults who fulfil the parental task in the psychological sense, i.e., who serve his growth by day-to-day interchange of continuous care, affection, and stimulating involvement. As the law stands today children can be forced away from psychological parents, to whom they are deeply attached and under whose guardianship they prosper, and with continuity broken, be made to adapt to biological parents with whom no ties are in existence. It is alleged by some people that return to the biological family is truly in the “best interest” of the child, who thereby will be spared an identity crisis in adolescence. The truth is that in adolescence most children undergo what may be called a crisis of identity when they have the difficult task to grow beyond the parents of their childhood… (A. Freud 1982:302-305).

In conclusion the above reveals a pronounced hostility between childless female child psychoanalysts and female psychoanalyst who had children of their own (A. Freud vs. M. Klein and M. Mahler vs. H. Deutsch). Main characteristics of female child psychoanalysts, as reported above, dichotomised for and against the parent (mother):



From Peter Klevius comparison of early female child psychoanalysts (in Pathological Symbiosis, 2004:46).



Alice Miller´s psychoanalytic genosuicide

The secular trend against religion in its most primordial sense (religare = tie back, ancestor worship) is perhaps best exemplified through the writings of Alice Miller. Although the notion of "the child itself" seems philosophically unintelligible, it reveals the myths and inconsistencies of what is believed to be the modern individual. Alice Miller's inner desperate longing for parenthood lost in modernity.

Lack of deep (not superficial) and lasting attachment (family, kin and friendship ties) is, together with cultural/political segregation (sex, race, etnicity etc), the social cancer of today. In this respect A. Miller's family hatred/jealousy constitutes a weapon directed against the very core of human society, i.e. it's the most lethal and massive form of genosuicide and the basis for the new human being Homo Filius Nullius!    

In psychoanalysis a person tells a story she did not know about and the psychoanalyst is a person who lets her be "such as she is right now" says Alice Miller (1980:74), one of the most ardent, psychoanalytic proponents for connecting personal difficulties at adult age, on parental deviance. "My patients", she continues, lack a "genuine emotional understanding" for the course of their own childhood, and they express "complete unsuspecting" for "the real needs of their own". Miller refers to the works of M. Mahler, D. Winnicott and H. Kohut (A. Miller 1980:12-13).    

Little is available from general resources as to Alice Miller's personal circumstances and she is known for not revealing her private life. But she writes: "I was a stranger to everybody in my family. Today, I know for sure that I was unwanted, rejected from the conception on, never loved, emotionally completely neglected, and used for the needs of others. But above all I was lied to, I grew up with a perfect hypocrisy. My parents, both absolutely unconscious of their true feelings, pretended to love me very much, and I believed this (because I so much needed this illusion) for more than 40 years of my life until I started to suspect the truth hidden behind their pretensions, hidden probably to them too. Suspecting is not yet as much as knowing for sure but it was the start. It took me 20 years more to get rid of my denial because I was so alone with the knowledge of my body and my dreams, and a wall of denial surrounded me wherever I opened my mouth. Writing and painting were the only ways to continue with my search without being offended and "punished" for being the troublemaker"[1] (Miller 2001).    

According to Alice Miller, "any person who abuses his children has himself been severely traumatized in his childhood in some form or another. This statement applies without exception since it is absolutely impossible for someone who has grown up in an environment of honesty, respect, and affection ever to feel driven to torment a weaker person in such a way as to inflict lifelong damage. He has learned very early on that it is right and proper to provide the small, helpless creature with protection and guidance; this knowledge, stored at that early age in his mind and body, will remain effective for the rest of his life" (A. Miller 1990:190).    

Parenting seems an almost impossible task when looked upon through the writings of Alice Miller. Furthermore she does not serve us with more precise advices about the alternatives. Only generalized expressions, such as "seeing the child", are given. Instead Alice Miller asks herself if we ever are going to conceive the extent of the loneliness and abandonment that we have been exposed to as a child. The "very huge number" of people suffering from narcissistic disorders "very often" have had "discerning", "ambitious" and "supporting" parents. Often they have received praise for their talents and achievements. According to Miller, almost all of the individuals attending her for analysis have become dry already during their first year (sic). They tell her that their parents have been empathetic and they have no compassion for the child they were themselves (A. Miller 1980:12-13).    

According to Miller there is an "original narcissistic need" in the child to be "as it is". "As it is" has to be understood as M. Mahler's[2] notion that the infant's inner sensations constitute the core of the self. These sensations "seem" to remain the point of crystallization on which the sense of identity is built (1980:14). But, says Miller, if the patient through the analysis, "consciously" has experienced? how he has been "manipulated" in his childhood by his parents and which "wishes for retribution" this has created in him, then he is going to be less manipulative himself (ibid).    

This is, concludes Alice Miller, based on my own experiences (A. Miller 1980:103). She gives an example of how remaining "Oedipal pain" can be delegated to the child through parenting. One day she walked behind a young and "tall of stature" (sic) parental couple and their whining two-year-old son. Alice Miller, contrary to the parents, understood that the boy wanted an ice cream stick of his own instead of licking the tip of those of his parents. Why, asks Miller, did not the parents understand the boy and why did not they give half of their ice cream to him? It could only be explained if we look upon the parents as children who now have got a weaker individual on whom they can feel powerful (1980:63-65).

However, an alternative view, as out-lined above, could interpret this as "psychic energy" of Sigmund Freud, that talks through a disappointed adult in search for a suitable explanation that could help her clarify her own life.    

But the final question remains: Why do so many assign Miller with such an important role and how do we get back on the old tracks again without fundamentalist degeneracy?     

[1] Alice Miller was obviously not a child when she discovered the ?child? in herself. But the question is whether that child would have recognized itself? If not, unrecognizable parts would then belong entirely and only to the already grown up Alice Miller!

[2] In M. Mahler 1972:17.    

by Peter Klevius 2003


Shortly after Alice Miller's death her son Martin Miller stated that he had been beaten by his authoritarian father during his childhood - in the presence of his mother. Miller first tried to defend herself by saying she intervened, but later admitted that she did not intervene.